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Lecture 1 Notes.docx

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Natural Science
NATS 1700
Zbigniew Stachniak

Lecture 1 Notes - Computing and Society: A Gentle Introduction - Computing is a good example of the continuous interaction between inventing and the forces of cultural, social, economic, technological, and political change. - Inventing is: o What sets us–humans–apart from other living organisms; inventing is to venture where others have not, stretching beyond conventional frontiers of time, space, and thought; o What creates new possibilities, sets new standards, brings social and economic progress and enrichment of knowledge; o An expression of freedom, of power to create but also (and unfortunately) to dominate, and may bring social and economic injustice, destruction, and suffering. - Until the birth of the mechanical calculator industry in the 19th century, the business of advancing calculation methods was being taken care of by mathematically inclined individuals exclusively - Pascal calculator created by Roberto Guatelli (1978) - The first mechanical calculators started to show up in 16th century - Mathematical tables were used to ease calculation, verification, selection, categorization, and extraction of data. They became manufactured in large th th quantities and varieties. (18 & 19 Century) - Mechanical calculators of the 19th century were inexpensive - The arrival of computers in the 20 century was demanded because there was a need to automatically perform operations that were much more complex than those that could be done on calculators. - Though computing brings many positives, it brings bad things like compu
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