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The Industrial Age.docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1760
Vera Pavri

Jan 10, 2012 T HE INDUSTRIAL A GE ,P ART I  Was the Industrial Age as revolutionary as many older historians have proposed at one period of time? I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION  Many historians point to England as being the country that led the beginning this process of industrialization (began in late 1700s, 18 century)  Industrialization has been characterized by incorporating a number of new features in society  From the 1600s-1700s, England underwent a significant population shift (5.5 M-6M). With this population growth, comes certain limitations that a country like England had (i.e., space). Therefore, more congested areas, and use of urban areas  Additionally, a high population growth also means that individuals will require certain things like food, water and shelter, which led to an increasing scarcity of resources like land during this time  An increase in mechanized production –use of machines in terms of producing goods  The first industrial age will be associated with new kinds of energy sources (i.e., increasing use of steam power – steam engine)  Factories, and factory life was a very new feature during this time. Factories represented a completely new way of manufacturing and producing goods.  The use of new transportation and communication systems. o I.e., electrical telegraph system – represented the use of an electronic communication system, and a significant shift in the way in which communications were received; messages could be passed from one area to another in a very short period of time. o Rise of canal systems – waterways –, and railways represented new transportation routes of getting from one place to another.  Bottleneck – a kind of obstruction/problem; a term associated with manufacturing and production. Due to the constant use of roads to transport manufactured and produced goods, the roads became rundown. With the deterioration of the roads, you have a bottleneck that needs to be solved. Thus, railways/canals, and other transportation systems were the solution to the problems associated with the rise in population and the rise in manufacturing/production.  Industrialization has also been associated with the rise of iron making, and steel-making.  Industrialization was characterized by sustained economic growth – means that manufacturing and production levels did not have this rapid decline, they will continue to remain steady over an extended period of time. Sustained economic growth during this period of industrialization was in large part facilitated by the connection between the industries, which developed during this time. o I.e., the development of the iron/steel industry became sustained by other industries like transportation – railways/canals.  Changes in the field of agriculture – there is a move away from traditional 3-field crop rotation system, to what was now a 4-crop rotation system. Also, there was an increase in meat production, which was associated with the clove, and turnip production as well. The correlation between meat production and turnip and clove production is preservation. We see the connections between different industries.  Industrialization and the rise of factory systems have also been associated with the decline in farming and the increase in urban areas. This was associated with the closure of common land (the land that farmers would use communally, especially those who did not have a lot of income). Therefore, these farmers were looking for new ways of finding work; they slowly made their way into the urban areas, and into the new factory setting as well. 1 II. F EATURES OF THE INDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION A. New Energy Sources  With an increase in population, came a scarcity in land. As a result, energy sources like wood became extremely expensive as they grew scarcer – the price grew 5-10 times higher than it had in the past.  As a result, we see new things: a shift from renewable energy sources to non-renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources like wood were increasingly being replaced by non-renewable sources like oil and coal. I.e., it’s coal that is used in the steam engine and when using steam power. Why do we call certain kinds of energy sources renewable and some non- renewable? You can replant/regrow trees, but with these non-renewable energy sources, once you use it, that’s it.  Increase in energy consumption – more people, therefore more goods being produced. Between 5-10 times more consumption that what had been in the past o What is the end result of this increase in energy consumption? Pollution – the industrial age was one of the filthiest time periods in history. o During industrialization, the rapid rise did not come with sanitary conditions, which means that disease and filth were rampant in many area of life during this time. B. Factory System  The introduction of factories was a very gradual process. We often see that factory methods of producing and manufacturing goods went alongside traditional methods.  What makes a factory setting so different from a traditional setting where products were being made? o Prior to the rise of factories, most goods were produced on a much smaller scale, in small areas or households. But factories are in essence a very large-scale area were manufacturing and production happens under one roof o An increase in the use of machinery for manufacturing and producing goods o Wage labor  One of the very first factories in Europe was created by the Arkwright family  Many things were produced within the factory setting (i.e., textiles – like cotton)  In some factories, the greatest number of workers was mainly comprised of children (as young as 4, 5 and 6). Children were cheap and easy to control. But more importantly, children were young and small and could access areas that adults could not. They also did many of the dangerous tasks, and operating dangerous equipment. There was also a greater number of women working within the factory setting as well.  The general laborers working in the factory has a very difficult kind of life. Laborers weren’t necessarily working the standard 8-hour shift. They would often work around 12+ hours/day.  They grew very resentful to this kind of work and lifestyle. Factory work increasingly required less skill than traditional labor. So we see a transition from highly skilled work, to the increasing use of semi-skilled to unskilled labor. In addition, there was resentment amongst factory workers because they often did not see the benefits/rewards of this increase in manufacturing/production. With the increase, wages remained stagnant, which also led to resentment amongst the laborers.  Laborers were also resentful of clock-time. With the rise of the mechanical clock during the Scientific Revolution, the clock was valued amongst laborers, but as we get into the Industrial Revolution, this will change, and laborers will become resentful of the fact that every part of their day was heavily regulated according to the minutes and seconds of the clock.  1799 Parliamentary Act – makes it illegal for workers to unionize in hopes of bettering their work conditions. The reason for this is that factories were bringing about economic prosperity 2 for the country. England was growing in both prestige and power during this time, and didn’t want to derail this process. Therefore, for the most part, laborers were ignored in terms of their demands.  Development of institutions alongside factories – jails and schools – which were the elements of social control C. Industrialization and New Methods of Financing  Historically, factories were financed through trades like sugar and laborers. However overtime, this is going to change. Increasingly, we see new kinds of financial institutions. Prior to the age of industrialization, we see countries/areas like the Amsterdam who were very instrumental in developing new kinds of financial institutions. England too developed their own stock exchanges and financial institutions like banks.  The successes of countries like England were in large part facilitated by the fact that these countries were engaged in a process known as colonization in other parts of the world. This era of colonization involved European countries going to places like North America, Africa, and Asia and essentially asserting social, economic and political control over other countries. England’s primary colony during this time was India, but Canada also started as a colony.  The colonies provide 2 very important things for the home country: o Raw materials: England would receive its raw materials required to produce and manufacture goods within the factory setting o Consumer base: within the colony, there were large groups of people who would purchase the goods produced in the factory. We see this idea of sustained economic production.  The negative impacts of colonization – when a country was colonized, it often prevented the colony from industrializing themselves. One of the most famous sayings in England during this time was that it’s better to keep India agricultural, rather than mechanical. A lot of the colonies were therefore prevented from industrializing through economic policies (i.e., the protective tariff was placed on India during this time – goods that were produced in India were more heavily taxed than goods produced in England, making them more expensive, and therefore less likely to be bought than the goods produced in the home country) D. Changes in economic and political ideology  Economic: o Mercantilism (economies are state-controlled and free trade is restricted in order to help boost exports and increase the state’s resources) vs. open markets and free trade o 1776 – Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations is published which argues for laissez-faire capitalism – a more free trade economy associated with capitalist ideas. This was a very different idea than that protectionist idea posed on countries during this time  Political: o Karl Marx spent much of his time traveling to the different factories and making note of the discontent of the workers. He eventually proposed that workers would never get their fair share, and they’ll never see the benefits of industrialization until they took over the means and modes of production (i.e., equipment, factory) that the owner themselves were in control of. He believed that the only way of creating a more egalitarian society is if the workers themselves controlled things, and not the owner. o Marx noted that this kind of class struggle could be violent, and this class struggle will become the foundation of Marx ideology, and the foundation of socialism and communism to follow. 3 III. S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY IN THE INDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION  Despite the growing relationship between the science and technology during the Scientific Revolution, there still remains this relative disconnect between those practicing science, and those practicing the technical arts. o Example #1: the technique of production, which was associated with iron production. In Europe, it had been very difficult for manufacturers to produce iron-using coal because coal often left this filmy substance at the end of the process, rendering the overall product useless. But by the 18 century, individuals like Abraham Darby developed new processes and techniques, which would result for the first time, the use of coal in these kinds of processes. More importantly, these processes were developed with little scientific knowledge. These were processes, which were created through a trial/error method. So the idea of applying scientific knowledge is still not evident o Example #2: involves the development of the steam engine. There’s a famous saying, “science owes more to the steam engine, than the steam engine owes to science” – this means that science was not used to create the steam engine, but over time, scientists will use the steam engine to further scientific studies. Science was not heavily involved in the development of one of the most important discoveries during the Industrial Age.  The steam engine was first developed for one specific area – the coalmine. Coalmines tended to flood, and the water needed to be eliminated. So, the steam engines were used to alleviate this problem and remove the excess water. But the very first steam engines that were produced were extremely inefficient and expensive, and could only be used in areas like mining where there was a ready supply of coal  Engineers like Thomas Newcomen and James Watt, over time, made rapid improvements to the steam engine. They made steam power far more efficient than it had been in the past. This was done through the process of trial and error - tinkering. Many of these engineers did not have a scientific background, and they used their practical knowledge of the technology. Over time, steam power will be used to fuel machines in the factory settings, and locomotives in the railways as well. o Example #3: Story of the building of a bridge. At the beginning of the 19 century, London was very interesting in building a cast-iron bridge within the city limits. However, the problem was that this kind of bridge was never before constructed, and there was a concern as to whether or not the project was feasible. Public officials during this time decided to try to inquire about the feasibility of this project by asking different groups. One of the groups they consulted were natural philosophers/scientists, and the other group were engineers. These officials thought that they could pool the knowledge of the engineers alongside the knowledge of the natural philosophers to get a better account of whether or not such a bridge could be constructed. But they found that the knowledge from each group was so different, and could therefore not be used in conjunction with each other.  I.e., the engineers could provide the officials estimates/probability as to whether or not a cast-iron bridge would be successful, but they could not necessarily prove their ideas using any kinds of scientific theory.  However, according to the officials, the scientific knowledge was even more useless. The scientists were telling the officials things like not to paint the bridge white, because white will reflect light and light was not a good thing for this kind of construction – not the kind of information that these officials required. 4 o These examples show us that although science and technology were growing closer together, during the Industrial Age, there was still this separation between those interested in science, and those interested in the technical arts. IV. H OW REVOLUTIONARY WAS THE I NDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION ?  When we talk about revolutions, often times we are talking about events that denote sudden, rapid changes in society. Many people claim these events as revolutionary because of the changes in manufacturing and production of goods.  In essence, the transition to factory settings is often seen as a revolutionary change.  We often hear the idea that the Industrial Revolution was caused by the steam engine. The creation of the steam engine led to these changes in society during this time – a classic example of technological determinism – the notion that industrialization was caused by the advent of a particular technology.  With revolution, we think of rapid changes in society, and yet one of the key ideas of the revolution was slow gradual change, that led to economic growth. These changes were significant, but the kind of transition during the industrialization is in the following areas: Pre-Industrialization Post-Industrialization High wages Low wages Low volume of goods High volume of goods High quality Low quality  Prior to the industrial revolution – high wages, low volume of goods produced, high quality of goods. With industrialization, there’s a movement toward lower wages, a higher volume of goods, and lower quality. This transition in many ways is best viewed with the advent changes like the factory system.  However, even though factories were first introduced into society during this period of time, it doesn’t necessarily mean that they took on new ways of producing goods right away. They didn’t change their method of producing goods overnight. While factories were becoming increasingly commonplace, and were in fact changing methods of manufacturing and production, these factory systems were often beside existing and traditional methods of work (i.e., small-scale businesses)  With industrialization we see the rise of factories, but even when factories were introduced into society, only 1 out of 10 workers actually worked in a factory setting. If this is the case, then how revolutionary was this process?  There were significant changes (i.e., factory and steam engine), but these changes took place slowly, gradually over time, and often times, these changes came about while people still continued to do traditional methods of manufacturing and production.  If we acknowledge that this period of time known as the Industrial Revolution was in fact a period of time where changes were slow and gradual, why is this the case? Why did it take time for these changes to permeate and diffuse into society? o Thomas Misa (historian) – industrialization took a very long time to occur in large part because of the need of a particular industry to develop during this time. And the kind of industry he is referring to is the idea of an ancillary industry – bridge/connector industries – industries that began to develop that were connector industries to the much larger-scale industries already around. A bridge/connector industry can be thought of with the following example:  Beer brewing was one of the largest industries during this time; gin manufacturing and whiskey manufacturing came out of this industry over time.  Cotton textile industry – dye and bleaching industries developed 5 o These ancillary industries helped to sustain economic growth. With industrialization, we see sustained economic growth which can only happen with these connections between various industries (i.e., connections between railways and iron-fuel making or and smaller- scale/ancillary industries which developed from the larger-scale industries) V. C ENTERS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION :L ONDON ,M ANCHESTER AND SHEFFIELD  Misa suggests that many towns, and many cities took different “paths” during the revolution there was not a single method or process for industrialization o Industrialization doesn’t have a blueprint; there is no one single blueprint that cities followed in terms of industrializing. Different cities had their own path, and industrialization will look very different depending on the city that you’re focusing on. A. London  Many historians ignored an examination of London during the Industrial Age, simply because London was already England’s biggest city, and they often looked to other cities with increases in population as key examples of changes that the Industrial Age brought about. However, Misa suggests to us that this is in fact quite problematic. If we want to examine the large-scale feature of industrializing, no city best represents this idea than London does. th  In terms of scale, in the early 19 century, more steam engines were located in London than in anywhere else in England during this time. 1 out of every 3 workers worked in a factory setting, and this suggests that London had over 333,000 factories.  In the 18 century there were about 500,000 people, and by 1850, there were 2.4 M people. o Bottleneck - with an increase in population, comes the need for things like food, shelter etc. Therefore, goods are constantly going to be coming in and out of the city. Initially, a major problem of this is that more people, more transport etc. means that the transportation routes will become extremely congested. Roads were not only used by everyone – not only manufacturers, but by the people as well. So, as more and more people are using the roads, they’re increasingly deteriorating, and there comes a need for alternative modes of travel/transportation (i.e., railways and canals).  During this period of time, London was the center for trade and commerce in the area – London shipping docks is amongst the largest in the world (25 miles); ¾ of all overseas trade happens in London. The colonies facilitated the success as well.  London is often a good example with the problems associated with pollution (i.e., London has more people and more factories, 1 in 3 steam engines can be found in London). o More people were using steam in this particular place than anywhere else. With the use of steam engine, means the high use of coal, leading to a more polluted environment. Filth, disease and decay, which in many ways infested these cities as well. o Cities like London smelled really bad, and people died on a regular basis because of the unsanitary conditions. It will take many years before the infrastructure is in place to adequately supply the citizens with the need that they require  In London, there were large-scale industries such as the beer brewing industry – because beer was safer to drink than water, people drank it in the morning, afternoon, and the evening. o Porter beer is low quality, cheap beer – it’s at high volume, but low quality. Porter brewing industry in London was huge in terms of scale. The money required for the Porter beer-brewing industry surpassed everything. The average amount that some of these beer brewing industries were worth in London was over 270, 000 pounds in the 19 century. At the same time, the average beer-brewing industry in Manchester was worth 20,000 pounds. o The Porter beer industry was also an industry where technology was created to produce a high quantity of goods for a lower price. The technology was though to be 6 labor saving, where you required fewer people to do the work. Also, it was the beer- brewing industry, which produced many ancillary industries. o In the late 18 century, storage vats could hold up to 20,000 beer barrels; brewers went from producing 50,000 barrels in 1748, to 300,000 by 1815.  The left overs from creating beer were used to create another industry – the fertilizer industry  London – scale; one route a city took toward industrialization B. Manchester  Cotton textiles – Manchester is the most studied city during the Industrial Age. Manchester is a city, which grew a lot, in large part because of the factory system.  Manchester experienced unprecedented growth with industrialization: population went from 30,000 in 1770, to 300,000 by 1850.  Manchester not only had the weather that was good for cotton, but also had many canal routes, allowing for the transportation – the importing and exporting of goods.  Why did it take so long for these modern methods of transportation and production to come about? o Ancillary industries – growth can only be sustained with the growth of ancillary industries; dye-making industries, bleach-making industries came out of the cotton industry.  Gender and technology (another theme in course) – Manchester reflects the transition of women into the factory setting. Prior to industrialization, Manchester was a small area where women were working in the home, spinning and weaving cotton on their own. They made an independent living for themselves, and this was a relatively independent mean for them on a traditional and smaller scale. And yet, these women were not able to compete because with the introduction of the factory, we saw a large-scale center for manufacturing and production that housed many state-of-the-art technological innovations (i.e., spinning and weaving machines were extraordinarily big and difficult to maneuver). o The quality of goods tended to be poorer than the quality of those that were handcrafted. However, the goods produced were cheap, meaning many of the women, who had made an independent living for them, could no longer compete. o As a result, many of the women shift and move into the factories. Not only did the women lose the independent means of livelihood that they once had, but also when they shifted to the factories, they often were paid the lowest wages of anyone (aside from children) because in the factories, women were given the tasks of weaving the cotton. Spinning technologies were often too big for women to handle themselves, and weaving was considered an inferior occupation than spinning. C. Sheffield  The good that was produced in Sheffield was high quality steel (chart doesn’t apply to Sheffield). Not only did they produce high quality steel products, but also they did so without the use of factories. Sheffield was a successful area, not because of the use of factories, but because it’s doing so in the tradition way. Thus, we see a different path to industrialization than Manchester and London  London Manchester and Sheffield all have one major thing in common – the increasing use of steam power. The steam engine replaced water as the major energy source, and because of it, Sheffield will see, just like the other cities, problems associated with living conditions and disease. The average lifespan of a steel-maker in Sheffield for a male was 40-50 years old; many would die very prematurely because of the working conditions. 7 January 17, 2012 T HE INDUSTRIAL A GE ,P ART II I.T HE “S ECOND ”S CIENTIFIC R EVOLUTION  The major transitions which highlighted the first Scientific Revolution (1400-1700): o The movement from an earth – centered universe to a sun centered universe o Rise of mathematics o The increased use of experiment in scientific practice o Trends in the mechanical philosophical approach  With the first scientific revolution, the kinds of sciences that were focused on by individuals like Copernicus and Newton, tended to be in the following areas: astronomy, mechanics (i.e., physics and motion), mathematics, and optics. We also see the trends of these fields being highly theoretical in nature.  Also, the first scientific revolution culminated with the ideas of Isaac Newton, and the impact that he will have on future natural philosophers. At the end of Newton’s book on optics, he provided individuals with a series of theories or questions for future natural philosophers to embark upon asking or looking at the same kinds of issues and problems in a similar fashion  Newton was able to combine, more than any other philosopher, the studies which included both the importance of experimentation and mathematics  When we look at sciences like astronomy, optics and mechanics, we’re looking at disciplines that had been studied as early as ancient Greece. These arenas were in fact, additions to the new arenas of science, which can be looked at by talking about some of the new scientific disciplines, which had been popularized later on (i.e., electricity, magnetism, studies in heat). These kinds of fields are very much a part of the second scientific revolution  Experiments in electricity began much later, and yet electricity, magnetism, and heat will become a predominant part of the science curriculum over time. Newton provides the program – the way of attempting to understand phenomena within these disciplines. Studies in these fields were extremely focused on the use of experiments in terms of coming up with results. Far more emphasis what put on experimentation than what we have seen in the past.  Magnetism, electricity and heat have often been called Baconian sciences, named after Frances Bacon. Bacon was very much a believer in experimentation, and this focus on experimentation has led many historians to call electricity, magnetism and heat the Baconian sciences.  With the second scientific revolution, we begin to see, not just an increase in experimentation, but also increasingly, a greater emphasis in areas like mathematics in what were traditionally experimental sciences.  The second Scientific Revolution was also very much classified with a greater unification of scientific disciplines, in a way that we have not seen before in the past. This began with someone like Newton who merged astronomy and physics together with his theory on gravity.  Also, there were huge links in knowledge in areas like electricity, chemistry and magnetism over time because experiments in these fields were done by talking about an idea called the Ether.  Many natural philosophers believed that the air was filled with this ether-like substance, which helped transfer things from one place to another. It will be many years until scientists reject the idea of the ether all together. But the ether was considered to be extremely important for those studying electricity, and equally important for those studying magnetism and chemistry as well.  With the second scientific revolution, not only do we see a rise in disciplines like heat, magnetism and electricity, but also overtime, we see that those fields increasingly focus on experimentation. Yet, eventually, there will be a greater emphasis placed on mathematics as well. 8  In contrast, fields that were very mathematized in nature (i.e., astronomy, physics) will increasingly incorporate experimentation.  Studying science after the first revolution was very much based on the Newtonian concept, which was his answer to the question of what is gravity. Talking about the second scientific revolution is best understood by going back to two of Newton’s works: o The agenda he set for natural philosophers in his book on optics o “I frame no hypothesis” – I don’t have to explain what gravity is, because it works – scientists could study different study without necessarily having to explain the phenomena, as long as they were using theories and ideas that worked. II.S ECOND INDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION -O VERVIEW  When historians look at the past, they often look at the first industrial age as really laying the foundations for what we call “modern-day society” – changes in the way work was done (i.e. factory system), changes in energy sources.  Modern-day society has its foundations in the second industrial revolution  The second industrial revolution is extremely important because it is in many ways the turning point related to a lot of areas like the relationship between science and technology  Up and until this time, we have noticed one trend throughout history: for the most part, science and technology as disciplines were, and remained largely disconnected with each other, starting with the ancient Greeks like Plato and Aristotle.  Even in the late 1700s, people doing science were still doing something fundamentally different than those engaging in the technical arts. It is only in the second industrial age, that we see for the first time a truthmerging of science and technology.  From the mid 19 century and onwards, will be the first time where technology and science will come together in a way that we have never seen before in the past.  The second industrial age began in the early-mid 19 century, and many of the changes that took place during this period of time took place in two countries: Germany and the U.S o Because England was at the forefront of changes like the way work was being done, they had in fact established a fairly strong infrastructure, and as a result, they are going to be less likely to incorporate the new changes of the second industrial age. When people get used to doing things a certain way, when an infrastructure is already in place and appears to work, change is harder to incorporate. o In contrast, a newly unified Germany and a young US were countries that were aiming to catch up to the British. They wanted to compete with a country like Britain, and were far more enthusiastic to adopting change  What kinds of changes took place in these two areas?  The key feature of the industrial age is the rise of the new Techno-science based industries which began to immerge during this period of time  Techno-science industry – an industry that will begin to use scientific knowledge in the creation and application of new goods/technology. In other words, they’re industries that require some kind of scientific knowledge to produce an actual good. Most kinds of goods that are made in society today require some kind of understanding of science. But this kind of industry was not around before the early-mid 19 century; it’s a very new kind of industry. o E.g., techno-science based industries included those related to fields like electricity and chemistry.  Electricity – a science, so people started studying electricity, and using this knowledge to make things like vehicles and electric lighting.  Chemistry – people studying chemistry began to develop new products out of their research and started to sell these products; two industries, which developed during 9 this period of time, were the synthetic dye industry, and the pharmaceutical industry.  With the first industrial revolution, we see new ways of manufacturing and producing goods (i.e., rise of the factory system), however, the goods that were being produced remained quite traditional. People were spinning and weaving cotton centuries before they were spinning and weaving cotton in a factory setting. The good was not new; just the way it was being done was innovative.  In the second industrial age, the goods themselves are unique because you are not applying scientific knowledge in producing newfound commodities.  Mass production – huge quantities of goods, all of which are exactly alike and can therefore be sold for a cheap price. The 20/21 centuries have been called societies of mass production. However, mass production only started in the early 1900s. It too, is therefore a major change that took place during this period of time.  Germany: educational reforms in areas like science and technology o Germany was a newly unified country, and it was at the forefront of many changes that were being made in the way the people were studying science and engineering; it was a leader in these kinds of reforms. 1. Engineering: th  Rise of technical schools: Prior to the 19 century, engineering was not necessarily a discipline, which required formal education. Rather, engineers became engineers through apprenticeship. While, many formal engineering schools had been around for centuries, it wasn’t an actual requirement to call oneself an engineer. This started to change in large part because by the 19 century, engineers wanted to be recognized as a profession just like doctors, lawyers and scientists. Therefore, technical schools were one venue that engineers could go to. 2. Science  Rise of research laboratories: Germany led other countries in science education reform within the university setting. Germany was one of the first countries to implement research laboratories in their universities. The idea of a research laboratory was a new phenomenon in Germany in the 19 century. They also represented a very big change in philosophy in science education in Germany. With the research laboratory, there was increasingly this expectation in Germany that those studying science would not only study knowledge of the past, but they’ll begin generating their own knowledge within these research laboratories. Many histories have called these laboratories the modern-day social spaces. A movement away from coffee houses, salons and pubs, to a research laboratory with experts from different disciplines coming together and sharing ideas and theories.  Introduction of the standard textbook: If you introduce a standard textbook, knowledge becomes standard across the board. The foundations for learning are going to be similar everywhere.  Growing requirement of a PhD in order to be called a scientist: the term scientist only became commonplace in the 1840s – people were increasingly calling themselves “scientist” as a claim to the profession. You increasingly required a PhD to call yourself a scientist.  All of these engineering and science education reforms meant: you had more people studying science and engineering within these formal education systems than ever before in the past. Newly minted scientists and newly minted engineers need somewhere to go, and many of them begin to find jobs in the new techno-science based industries – a symbiotic relationship. Universities and technical schools are creating these graduates to enter into these industries 10  Industries were funding technical schools, and setting up research laboratories, encouraging people to learn and innovate. The rise of techno-science based industries in large part was facilitated in many of the changes in science and engineering education.  Engineers were also doing other things to be taken more seriously – i.e., forming professional associations – increasingly, in order to be classified as an engineer, you had to adhere to a certain set of practices.  Engineering will also change in terms of increased specialization. Prior to the second industrial age engineers fell into categories like civil engineers, or military engineers. And yet, with the second industrial revolution, we see the rise of the chemical engineer, and the electrical engineer.  In the early 20 century, engineers started to call themselves applied scientists. Because science always had a higher status than that of technology – even in the modern age, this was done to raise the status of a profession that has always been seen as the “little sibling” of science.  United States: began using techniques of mass production  The United States took over countries like England because of their economic output. This was in large part because of changes to their manufacturing and production. These changes were so different and unique that the British called these changes “the American system of manufacturing”  US steel output: In 1870, the US was producing 70,000 tons of steel, and by 1910, they’re producing 26.1 M  United States: began using techniques of mass production  The internal combustion engine was developed because of the inefficiencies produced by steam power – it’s best known in the car industry and therefore, when we talk about mass production, many of these changes happened in Henry Ford’s factory in Detroit at the turn of the 20 century Jan 19, 2012  The early-mid 19 century was a unique time period in history – techno-science based industries is different in the application of goods and science  Technology as applied science – the idea of technology coming out of scientific research or scientific discoveries. Up and until the 19 century, science and technology were completely separate entities nd  Technology as applied science – this theory makes no sense until the 2 IR, b/c until this time, science and technology were completely separate entities  Completely new kinds of goods available to consumers in society, goods that were based on the application of scientific research.  During this period of time, we the an increase in this trend, never before seen in the p
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