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Natural Science
NATS 1760
Edward Jones- Imhotep

Jan22 Leonardo da Vinci - Technologies of the Court Da Vinci – born in 1452 in Vinci – illegitimate son of a notary, mother is farm girl – after his birth, father leaves mother to marry more wealthy woman, born out of wedlock – feels marginalized throughout his life – enormous amount of ability at young age – at age of 14 his father send him to study with famous artist and sculptress at the time – Lorenzo magnificent is ruler of florence – Da Vinci tries to get his patronage – Lorenzo sends him away to Ludovico, ruler of Milan – sends a letter that presents himself as a military expert – Ludovico is often on stand for wars, thinks this is a good idea – Italy is not a unified country – have “city states” which often go to war with Eachother – leaves florence and ends up working for duke of the land and produces most famous artwork – Da vinci attends dissections so he understands how the body works – begins presenting technologies – develops way of writing, so it is mirrored so he can keep things more secret – studies flight of birds and bats, builds flying machines based on these animals – develops elaborate mechanisms for humans to be able to fly – designs Balista: catapult – 1459, Milan falls under control of the French – Leonardo goes to Venice- Venice is being threatened by Turkish forces at the time – Venice is an incredible marvel, not ruled by kings – flourishing commercial centre, rich, good trade connections all over the world – idea that the Turks have focused on Venice for next target – Leonardo ends up proposing series of defences – develops innovative inventions that he wants to propose to Venice – used inventions to gain social status and financial security, increase patronage – writes fictional account of his role in defending Venice against the Turks – dreams of becoming world famous, achieving status which is against the status he was born into – “DO NOT TEACH AND YOU ALONE WILL BE EXCELLENT” – ambivalent attitude towards own inventions- they should make him famous, but should be kept secret – we can take away the ways which science, art and technology is mixed – brings together abilities in science art technology – brings about concerns about how much knowledge should be publicized – Leonardo uses patronage to elevate social position, would have been impossible for him to achieve his status in any other way – at end he is given house/ and property in France, by the King Patronage – key public relation campaign of absolutism – convince people of the absolute power of rules – absolute rulers employ small army to legitimize their rule – legitimates power of ruler – way for artists and natural philosophers to make a living because they aren't a profession, patronage pays for their livelihood – plays role in life of Da vinci The emergence of absolutism Absolutism – solution to political problem: political powers of rulers were limited – around 1600s- idea that power of rulers have to be unchecked, it is given to them by god – political power of the ruler is absolute/unchecked – if you claim that power is given by god, people under your control have to obey Johannes Gutenburg – known best for his invention of certain type of printing press – before his invention books are printed by copying by hand by monks – books were incredibly expensive before 1400, held by small group of people – books are almost always written in Latin, restricted to people who can read Latin – vast majority of people cannot understand Latin, Latin is barrier – innovation- called movable type – creates characters to print many different pages- uses metal to cast letters, which are more durable – begin to experiment around 1447, finalizes 1450 – other cultures have experimented with this, without the use of metal – press with movable type – first things he prints is the bible, prints in Binocular (anything but latin), which is available to many more people – price goes down number of people who have books and can read them expands rapidly – as ppl can read bible, begin questioning Catholic Church – ppl compare text of bible to social world around them – launches Reformation The Printing Press= Gutenberg’s Invention • The Reformation and the Counter-Reformation – wide scale/ organized attack on the corruption of the Catholic Church and faith – believe the Catholic faith has be corrupted by church, they want to reform the faith Martin Luther – writes grievance of church and posts them on the door – one thing he attacks indulgences – strange practices of Catholic Church: what determines how someone gets to heaven is how good they are, Catholic church say you can buy “indulgences” which is extra virtue, which is applied to someone who has passed away so we can get into heaven – Luther thinks this is scandalous – mount attack on excesses of Catholic Church – Catholic Church is under threat – launches counter attack, key tool is inquisition: attempt to stamp out and respond to threat of reformation The Inquisition and Menocchio - putrefaction – literate, can read – gets access to diverse books- even about philosophy – after reading wide range of books, comes up with theory – world arose through rotting; universe starts out as milk, out of
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