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Natural Science
NATS 1760
Edward Jones- Imhotep

Natural Philosophy in the Renaissance – science and art are closely related – period 1350- 1600 – 1500-1550 historians call high renaissance, beginnings of early modern science Humanism and the humanists – educational and cultural program based on study of the classics – rooted in idea that ancient greece and rome were the height of society – perfection and capacity of humans, believes recovers fromAncient Greece and Rome – believedAncient Greeks and Romans knew everything – product of recovery – educational program, a way of becoming something and an attitude toward Ancient learning – based on classics of Greece and Rome – trained in subjects about what it means to be human and how to understand the human The natural philosopher – aims to describe the way that the world is – come up with general theories for all aspects of the natural world – often obsessed and concerned with causes and why things happen – why do heavens move the way they do? – Why do things fall? The natural historian – about description – seeks to describe plants, animals, and minerals – give description of all the natural objects in the world – Aristotle: earth in centre of the universe The role of science in visual representation Perspective geometry and the 'School ofAthens' – uses optics (lines and light) to form how you should represent something – technique for representing a three dimensional image in two dimensions Art as the mirror of the world – comes from the work of Flippo Brunelleschi – important architect – devises techniques for how you should draw 3 dimensional objects – takes a board goes to doors of cathedral in florence – board and mirror uses to see baptistry – looks through the hole and uses the mirror to draw the baptistry – comes up of good representation of what the baptistry looks like – begins to be so important becomes called reign and rutter of painting – emphasizes important of mathematics in representing the world Two insights – commitment; art can mirror nature – mathematics can be used to gain knowledge about the world Mathematics and natural knowledge The role of visual representation in science Andreas Vesalius – use humanism to elevate social position of field – used visual representations in order to augment status of discipline – born into family of physicians and pharmacists – becomes personal physician of the Emperor Charles the fifth – Galen most important physician in Renaissance – Vesalius believe medicine has become mess, wants to return it to it's classical splendour – wants to revive ancient practice of surgery and dissection – wants to use dissection to turn anatomy into part of natural philosophy – in renaissance anatomy is seen at contemporary aspect, but surgery is practical application that has nothing to do with natural philosophy – surgery is not a professional enterprise, barbers perform surgery – it is not seen as philosophical is is work of artisans – wants to elevate surgery to natural philosophy – he does this through images – visual representations of the human body – dignity of human body is revealed through dissection – uses visual representation to narrow gap and show step by step process of what dissection reveals – virtual witnessing: if you were at dissection, this is what you would see – sees pictures as allowing people to witness the dissection in virtual sense – Vesalius students eager, bring bodies to dissect (not allowed to dissect in this period because it takes away human dignity and body cannot be resurrected) – tries to show how dissection reveals the secrets of nature – representation of nature is feminine revealing secrets through the nat
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