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Natural Science
NATS 1760
Edward Jones- Imhotep

February 26, 2012 Test- theory of evolution- darwin- natural selection question of development, application is related to society how is it related to questions of society Industrial Revolution – radical transformation that changes the world from rural and agricultural to urban and machinery – people go from living in land and country to living in cities – 19 century – change in way people change and their relationships to machines – transformation- people use complicated machinery to make things – shift from organic to mechanized/industrial power – in past work is done using organic mechanisms (ex; windmill) – after 1820, change where machinery of work is powered by artificial sources of energy (ex:steam, coal) – scale of machinery that people are associated with becomes much larger – machines break the notion of time, they break the rhythm because they can function consistently – work is no longer dictated by rhythms of nature, but rhythm of machines – gives people the power to transform nature – development of technologies that give humans the capacity to transform their environment – change the way the world functions – raises concerns about the relationship to nature – century of progress- 19 century- faith in the ability of human beings to get better and improve themselves, society, and the world – colours and shape how people end up viewing their world and their place in the world – changes in the way people approach the world – work is structured by a clock (the machine) – work is dictated by the machine- people reacting negatively to this- saboteurs – luddites react strongly against these changes – points of opposition are limited – nature seems to be disappearing, yet appearing in things such as zoos – when machines are measured with precision, humans begin to be measured with precision – competition ends up leading to progress – theory of evolution – ideas of competition- theory of evolution makes competition central to society – science becomes increasingly specialized – person who is involved in science- natural philosophers to scientists – definition- from nature- progress – places-highly localized and specialized places- museums, zoos – belief in progress Auguste Comte – transformed by the idea of science for progress – starts studying medicine, switches to natural philosophy positivism: – theory of historical development – way of understanding history – way of understanding time and space – way of understanding position in world – different societies are more primitive based on these criteria – relationship of people to the world has changed – first theological age: characterized by people explaining the world using supernatural force – followed by metaphysical age: sought to explain the world through non divine/ naturalistic explanations, that do not always talk about causes – scientific age: seeks to describe the world according to natural causes and mechanical causes- nothing is understood to be hidden, mechanisms are always exposed – Western Europeans have progressed in ways others have not – way of relating your society to other societies – science becomes a way of suggesting superiority – comte wants to organizes sciences in hierarchy – top of hierarchy: physics because it explains why the world function the way it does- atoms and molecules – next is chemistry because it is an applied physics- – biology is applied chemistry – psychology Mechanical Worldview – suggests radical change- suggests you can have science of nature as well as science of society – different than mechanical philosophy- did not believe you could apply science to society – mechanical world view believes that you can explain society through scientific principles – science can capture aND predict the natural world- can do the same things with society – faith in the the power of science to capture theses phenomenon – can predict natural phenomenon – social phenomenon is at heart of mechanical worldview Colonialism – economic, political, cultural, social structure in which one nation controls others known as colonies – industrial revolution transforms ideas about nature along similar lines as colonialism – people who have science are dominant, therefore they are justified in controlling the world – they should control colonies as a way to civilize them and make them progress – ability to control other nations – ideas of progress and science legitimize colonialism – museums and zoos are places of natural history and part of colonialism – natural history:
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