Class Notes (838,464)
Canada (510,896)
York University (35,470)
Natural Science (2,813)
NATS 1760 (135)
Lecture 4

Vaccines 1 Lecture Notes (Lecture 4)

6 Pages
104 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Natural Science
Course
NATS 1760
Professor
Darrin Durant
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 5 How do vaccines work? - You are given a vaccine that contains a disease germ that is weak or dead E.g.: its ability to reproduce rapidly has been eliminated - Your body‟s immune system then builds anti-bodies - Anti-bodies are proteins that move freely in the body and can recognize pathogens What is MMR? - A vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella What is Autism? A spectrum of developmental abilities: - caused by: brain disorder? Pre-disposition + environmental trigger? - Limited social/communication skills - Prefers predictability and is resistant to change (dislikes loud noises, visitors, etc.) - Empathy does not come naturally if at all - Haphazard and uneven skills development - Tics, obsessive Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? - 1998: Wakefield‟s Lancet paper claims that Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine is associated with autism and bowel disease (12 children) - In the paper‟s “interpretation”, the environmental triggers are said to be mostly MMR vaccine (in 8 cases) - In a BBC interview, Wakefield blamed the MMR vaccine - Parents groups rally behind Wakefield - 2003: a review finds no link - 2004: an investigative journalist (Brian Deer) claims Wakefield‟s study was fraudulent and that Wakefield had a financial conflict of interest - Wakefield‟s co-authors retract “the interpretation” - 2007-present: Jenny McCarthy supports Wakefield - 2010: the British General Medical Council convicts Wakefield of dishonest, irresponsible and fraudulent conduct. It bars him from practicing medicine in the UK - 2010: The Lancet withdraws Wakefield (1998) - 2011: Deer repeats charges in the British Medical Journal Four ways citizens might engage with science (Leach, p. 269) 1) Dispute scientific claims 2) Borrow science to validate your politics - Acquire scientific authority for a political claim by finding a scientific expert to validate that political claim 3) Reject the scientific way of knowing and advance a new form of knowing - Advance your claims to expertise from some wholly different epistemological standpoint 4) Stake out some ground on the scientist‟s own terrain - Question the uses of science, the control over science, the content of science, or the processes by which science is produced Parental mobilisation around MMR “exemplifies” #4 (p. 270) - ALSO: it is a case of “citizen science” - “lay people are actively producing new knowledge which accords with their own experiences” (p. 270) Leach, “MMR mobilisation: citizens and science in a British vaccine controversy” - In considering the MMR controversy, this paper develops these arguments in several ways” (p. 270) - Focuses on parents‟ claims that the MMR vaccine is linked to autism - “citizen science grounded in parental experience: - FRAMING: … the controversy involves… Section 2 & 3… Different political commitments Parental concern + citizen rights versus public health Individual versus collective risk? Section 4…Differently-framed sciences Clinical versus epidemiological Individual versus population-based Section 4…But the same strategy Using the media, the legal process, and claiming political-economic bias Leach: “I have argued…this is a controversy between differently-framed sciences…grounded in different ways of being and social commitments (p. 297) Some public networks (section 3) - JABS (Justice, Awareness and Basic Support) - Between Gov‟t advice and extreme anti-vaccination - Opposed only to at-risk children receiving MMR - ARCH (Autism Research Campaign for Health) - Concerned about what causes autism - The policy recommendation: single vaccinations, not MMR - Avoid problems with triple vaccine (p. 276) - Allow parental choice - Stems from a claim of Wakekfield‟s - Others: National Autistic Society, Allergy Induced Autism, Action Against Autism - LINKS… - A common identity of parent‟s experience with autistic children (a „politics of injury‟) + alliances with experts - Anti-vaccination movements is separate (p. 275-278) Sustaining public networks? - “MMR talk” - Collins & Evans: part of developing „interactional expertise‟ - But see Leach, p. 278: „talk‟ as a part of common identity - Cyber-Politics - Media - Internet - Social movement blogs and online chat-rooms - Face-to-Face - Collins & Evans: the other part of developing interactional expertise Producing Science (Section 4.1) Symptoms as a novel syndrome linked to MMR vaccination - Wakefield‟s „combination‟ (Autism, bowel disease, MMR) is common The timing of onset of systems is coincidental - Older children get autism too, following MMR vaccination Co-factors - Something making some children more vulnerable? - Family history as a diagnostic tool? E.g.: allergies and several viruses at once? - Mercury in
More Less

Related notes for NATS 1760

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit