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NATS 1760

SC NATS 1760 6.0 B – Science, Technology and Society Lecture 1 – Methods and Beginnings An Economic Perspective on Science and Technology - Methods - Bernal’s Marxism, science and history - Role of scientist in capitalist society, origins of science in society - Conditions of production, economic context of science and technology Concerns with Science in the Modern World - Science changes rapidly, unpredictably and is not in control of scientists* - The disinterested pursuit of truth, moral concerns * - Five characteristics of science: o an institution, a method, a cumulative tradition of knowledge, a factor in production a factor shaping beliefs and attitudes to people and nature Science as an Institution - Professionalization, social status and economic contributions of science * - Education and mathematical training and public understanding of science - Science started out as a part time occupation of the upper classes* Science as a Method - Science has methods, historically located - Trades and scientific method * - Scientific approach to experiment similar and error methods of the trades - Scientific observations, assumptions and hypotheses, experience, experiments - Classification (ordering experience into categories) and measurement (quantification of properties of objects) * - Economic background of mathematics * - Measurement, experiment, generalization * - Scientific apparatus, senses, manipulation of nature * - Laws (general relationships), hypotheses (specific claims) and theories (groups of claims), integration and logic - Scientific language, theory, experiment and observation - Tactics of science, strategy of science (choosing problems), economic concerns* - Discovery and economic goals (Faraday, light, heat, electricity and magnetism) * Cumulative Tradition of Science - Science and the criticism of existing theories and ideas, accumulation of knowledge o “Science is far more than the total assembly of known facts, laws and theories, criticizing and often destroying as much as building. Nevertheless, the whole edifice of science never stops growing. It is permanently, as we may say, under repair; but it is always in use.” Bernal pp 18-19 - Early science is constitutive of later science - The time sequence of scientific development (math, astronomy, mechanics, physics, chemistry, biology, sociology) “fits even more closely the possibly useful applications which were in the interest of the ruling or rising classes at different times.” Bernal, p 20* - Interaction of scientific fields, great man history, social nature of science Science as a Means of Production - The origins of science as a specialized activity can be linked to its role as a means of production * - The geographic dispersion of science has followed trade, industry and technical advances * o “When the productive relations are changing rapidly, as when a new class is rising into a position of power, there is a particular incentive to improvements in production that will enhance the wealth and power of this class, and science is at a premium. Once such a class is established and is still strong enough to prevent the rise of a new rival, there is an interest in keeping things as they are – techniques become traditional and science is at a discount.” Bernal p 24 - Science and literacy, education and training * - Class barriers and scientific progress * Science as a Source of Ideas - Science is not just a history of ideas - Conflict between idealistic/formal and material/practical influences The Beginnings of Science - Origins of science hidden and fragmentary - Science and the manipulation of nature, techniques of early man * - Tools and language, manipulation of nature, extension of knowledge - Technical development and social traditions - Design of tools, experimental method, use of models, etc. * - Fire, cooking, tanning, dying, boiling and chemistry * - Plants and animal knowledge, hunting and gathering, botany and biology * - Art, symbolism, mathematics and writing - Regularities, manipulation of nature, observational and descriptive knowledge - Mechanics and the manipulation of objects, knowledge of statics and dynamics - Traditional basis of knowledge, observing and knowing - Ecological “footprint” of humanity: o Technology, expansion, population, altering environment o Hunting and gathering culture, animal populations parasitic societies - Technologies and scientific theory, physics - Shamans and medicine men as scientific precursors - Methods and Beginnings Introduction of Bernal Scientists aren’t interested in the history of science. Bernal talks about where does science start and he looks at the history to see where modern science fits in. He’s interested in production and understanding how things are made. He’s a Marxist; he talks about science and technology so he could see how it’s substantiated. Bernal notes that science is changing all the time and society is always changing as history moves forward. It’s also unpredictable because we don’t know what new theories are going to come forward. Both science and history change in all ways. Scientists themselves don’t control the applications of what they come up with, which Bernal notes. (In most cases they don’t have control over what they produce). Science itself is motivated by other things so that we could do stuff with it. Science always has an applied part of it, and there’s always a purpose to it. Science as an Institution Bernal mentions that development is when science contributes to the thonomy. During the scientific revolution they become more important which by the 19 century it becomes a profession. Practicing science requires knowledge in math, so most people don’t understand science so it separates them from the rest of the world. It started out as a part-time “hobby: by wealthy people. Science as a method Science has many methods that changed over time. Bernal looks at practices of science and what scientists actually do. He looks at the skills and abilities which come from the trades. Bernal says the trial and error method is adopted from the trade, which is adopted by scientists. These observations are looked at before they are actualized. Scientists also conduct experiments by going out into the natural world. Scientists also classified things and measures/quantify things, it is mathematical in order to understand things. Classification and measurement is done in everyday life but science too it and magnified it. This is also connected to economics which was done in earlier time but there had to be a record of what is sold and bought, and math is connected to that which is connected to science. The ability to quantify and measure allows us to do more experiments and then it allows it to be universal and generalized so that everyone can understand. Scientists also use scientific tools to allow us to collect info about the world, and to see further that we cant do natural, we use technology to extend our senses. As well, to manipulate the world in ways that we cant do on our own. Scientists describe nature in laws in hypothesis and theories in order to organize the world using cognitive tools. Science’s language is math, to help understand nature and how it fits into the world. Bernal Argues that the methods of science are the tactics of science in order to solve a problem, but then he mentions that science also has a strategy which is deciding which problems we need to solve and work on. For Bernal, the strategy of science is determined by economic factors by the most part. This means that the tactics aren’t determined by economics but the strategy is. Science frequently expands when it ignores economic problems. Bernal argues that we should only look at economic factors because of this ex. Renaissance. Cumulative Tradition of Science Science is about the now, but Bernal argues that the now builds on the old. We cant get to the newer theory without the older. Bernal is cumulative in that sense but we don’t keep everything from the old theories. Science is always growing and changing based on what is there. Today is different than 500 years ago, but we wouldn’t be here without that. The time sequence is math, astronomy, mechanics, physics, chem., bio, sociology, which fits more closely to external factors, like economy. “fits even more closely the possibly useful applications which were in the interest of the ruling or rising classes at different times.” Bernal, p 20* Individual people are a product of our society so it’s the society who ultimately caused the inventions. We need to look at the social context to understand as well. “Science is far more than the total assembly of known facts, laws and theories, criticizing and often destroying as much as building. Nevertheless, the whole edifice of science never stops growing. It is permanently, as we may say, under repair; but it is always in use.” Bernal pp 18-19 Science as a means of production Bernal argues that science becomes a specialized activity at the same time it is linked to production. Ex. 17 century statistics said they come up with the applications but it came out in th the 19 century. The geographic dispersion of science has followed trade, industry and technical advances. “When the productive relations are changing rapidly, as when a new class is rising into a position of power, there is a particular incentive to improvements in production that will enhance the wealth and power of this class, and science is at a premium. Once such a class is established and is still strong enough to prevent the rise of a new rival, there is an interest in keeping things as they are – techniques become traditional and science is at a discount.” Bernal p 24. Science moves around just like the economy shifts. When there’s a certain group of people in power they have influence. But when people are in power they don’t want others to be in power so they dominate. Times in history people come together from different groups and scientists adopted from there. According to Bernal, this is a conflict between theoretical and political science. Beginnings of Science Bernal goes back to human civilization. Representation of science today is the computer etc. Bernal says it’s hard to look back because its very different. Part of the purpose of nature is to manipulate, and science is related to old civilization science that was how it was done back then too. Therefore, early human activity shaped our science today. As well tools, language, that we adapted from old civilizations. Back then they communicated through language which allows growing and accumulation. He also argues that social tradition was also passed to different groups within communities all over the world, so knowledge is social. Tools were designed to change the physical object to use it, using the scientific method which is what we use now. -> Trying different things o see what works. Cooking and burning is early chemistry. Chemical knowledge is the study of how substances behave. Knowledge of plants and animals also started here, which emerged as botany. There isn’t a lot of written work so a lot of it is guess work and assuming. Art also appears in early civilization, it is the basis of symbolism, math and writing. Writing comes from art which Bernal argues that art comes before math and is crucial to science. The knowledge developed was passed on from one generation to the next. It was only necessary to observe the world and survive, but these were crucial to later observations. The basis of mechanics is by moving things around which started in early civilization. Knowledge is traditional and it is discovered someone doesn’t need to know it themselves and then with that theoretical science can be build on. Our technological footprints have always been pushing the environment in ways that benefit us. Early hunting and gathering would hunt until there was no more and then moved to hunt more, they were disrespectful in that sense. What changed for us today magnified exponentially which we now can affect nature globally. The bow and arrow led to knowledge that later contributed to physics. Early tools allowed us to develop our theories in physics. Medicine mans used knowledge and tools to understand science which is the same as science today. SC/NATS 1760 6.0 B – Lecture 2 - Missing Agriculture - Agriculture developed approximately 10000 years ago - Growing of crops and the domestication of animals - Change from nomadic tribes to settlements, knowledge of growing cycle of plants o Early agriculture expanded our knowledge of plants - Populations growth, food storage, work - Agricultural techniques: sowing, hoeing, reaping, threshing, storing, grinding, baking, brewing, weaving, pottery, etc. - Surplus food as common goods, private property - Agriculture and delayed gratification of work - Religion, change of the seasons, fertility rites - Artificial irrigation, food surplus, higher populations, early government o “hydrological hypothesis”: civilization arose from the development of large-scale irrigation agriculture o Large scale irrigation agriculture, centralized coordination for management, storage and distribution - Creation of cities, administration, crafts, trade and labour - Urbanization and division of labour, specialization - Priests as administrators and rulers - Urbanization, class differentiation, slaves, labourers and citizens Metal, Transportation and Trade - Use of metal for tools o trial and error (experimentation), material properties (chemistry) - Use of bronze (tin and copper), guilds and metal working techniques - Sharp edged tools, carpentry, machines out of wood - Transportation technologies for food, goods, metal - River valleys, water transport, sea travel, navigation, astronomy - Wheeled cart and plough, agricultural expansion, measurement, recording and standardization - Writing and trade, mathematics and transactions - Large-scale public works and complex economic transactions, complex mathematics - Architecture and early geometry, e.g. volume of pyramid - Agriculture and the calendar, astronomy, astrology - Medicine, prognosis and case knowledge - Precious metals, measurement, chemistry Class Divisions in Early Society - Priesthood, mathematics, astronomy and medicine, upper classes - Scholars versus labourers in Egypt, class society and basic technologies - Benefits of production and labour - Agriculture, war, expansion, technological progress - Engineering weapons, siege engines, mining - Wealth concentration and large civil engineering projects - Large-scale hydrological agriculture: dams, canals, ploughs, sickles and wheels - Slavery, expansion, casualties of war, separation of labour from knowledge - Hieroglyphics, poetry, literature, techniques and technologies SC NATS 1760 6 – Lecture 3 – Classical Culture The Iron Age and Greek Natural Philosophy − Science and ancient Greece, technology and ancient China − Ancient Greece: − Scholarly discussion about nature − The exclusion of religion from explanations of nature − City states and democracy, open inquiry, the role of other cultures Iron − Iron important for commerce by 12 century BC − Forging and welding soft wrought iron, trial and error − Technique, simple tools, wood and iron ore, secret of steel − Communities, iron weapons, horses, warfare with nomadic peoples − Cheap iron, axes, iron-shod plows, forestry, carpentry, agriculture − Shipbuilding, cheaper sea transportation of goods − Increased construction, food production and population growth, costal cities had lower transport costs and expanded trade − “The Iron Age is the first in which commodity production becomes a normal and indeed an essential part of economic activity” − trade and local production − Slavery, labour, trade, small cities, warfare and political relations − Money in widespread use by 7 century BC, erosion of tribal relations Greek Natural Philosophy − Classical civilization, old ideas and practices, natural philosophy and democracy − Greek agricultural production and trade − New ways of thinking, vested interests and connections with other cultures − Greek dialectic, critical thinking − Greek natural philosophy, abstract, generalizations from first principals, experience and quantification − Greeks dislike for trades and labour, patrons and schools − Rulers and philosophers divorced from practical work, idealist and abstract − Thales: everything was originally water: earth, air and living things came from this water − Phase change, plants and animals, materialist and atheist theory − Heraclitus: all things were ultimately made of fire, constantly in flux − Empedocles: four elements, earth, water, air and fire − Pythagoras, number theory, Babylonian and Egyptian sources − Numbers and shapes, 1 - point, 2 - line, 3 - plane − Circles in astronomy, Heraclides and Aristarchus: Earth a sphere, planets, sun and moon all revolved around a “central fire” − Democritus: small, uncuttable particles called atoms moving in a void − Atomic theory materialistic and atheist − Hippocrates, observational work, rejected religious explanations − Empedocles: four humours matching the four elements: fire, air, water and earth - blood, bile, phlegm and black bile, health and the balance of humours Aristotle − Aristotle (384-322 BC), student of Plato’s, tutored Alexander the Great − Importance of observation, classification logic - “The Philosopher”, work criticized, the authority until at least Renaissance - Aristotle’s ideas are compatible with commonsense, but not reducible to it - Four causes: material, formal, efficient (agent making the change) and final (purpose – biological model) - Aristotle: senses reflect real qualities in objects, empiricism - 4 elements - earth, air, fire and water - Motion is imparted, force must be constant to maintain it - Natural motion: air and fire up, earth and water down, celestial motion in circles, all other motion “forced” or “unnatural” - Earth is immobile and spherical at center of universe - Void impossible, infinite motion and speed - Heavens and the 5 element, natural circular motion - Great chain of being, minerals and vegetables to man Greek Astronomy - Museum at Alexandria mathematical and astronomical research - Claudius Ptolemy (85-165 AD): 5 planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn - Heavens spherical and rotated, sun, moon, stars - Earth a motionless sphere located at the centre of the universe. - Classical science was abstract and idealistic, separated from craft knowledge Science, Technology and China - China ahead in technology, behind in natural philosophy - China was isolated by mountains, deserts and steppes th th - Sung dynasty (10 -13 century) rice agriculture, increasing population - Population spiked (estimated at 115-123 million), shifted south, urbanization increased (to 20% of population), leisured middle class Government - Centralized authority in emperor, Emperor T’ai-tsu (960-976), - Sung Dynasty (960-1279) economic, cultural & political growth - Transfer from hereditary power to a meritocracy, civil service - Bureaus, departments, supervisors, political power - Merchant classes controlled by state - 12 century China: 50,000 km of waterways and canals, 1100 mile Grand Canal - Hydrological engineering crossed land boundaries, reinforced centralized state - Large scale agriculture & trade, large scale state planning, trees, construction, manufacturing and ship industry - Ceramics, textiles, paper, machinery th - Paper and block printing (8 century), movable type in 1040 Chinese Science and Philosophy - Alchemical work, lifespan extension - Charcoal, saltpeter (potassium nitrate), sulphur and arsenic (gunpowder) 9 cent., bombs th and grenades, cannons and rockets by 10 century - Pyrotechnics for celebrations, fumigation, and for medicinal purposes - Math and astronomy, state support - Practical mathematics, economic and engineering problems - No mathematical community, no societies - Algebra over geometry and trigonometry, Muslim mathematicians - Accurate observational astronomy, new stars, comets, eclipses - Astronomy a state secret, transfers, children entering bureau - Accurate meteorological data and agriculture The Development of Chinese Science - Centralization, critical inquiry, institutions: guilds, colleges, universities, etc. - Bureaucracy and work in science and technology - Government exams and natural philosophy, state support - Craft knowledge and scholarly knowledge - General scientific method, universal laws, logic, induction and deduction - Confucian focus on ethics and social commitments over study and control of nature The Iron Age and Greek natural philosophy The first culture where we see the discussion of nature, and exclude religious explanations. They believed religion was in the spiritual world but not when explaining science. The last thing is the idea that city states were democratic and its an important component of science. Bernal argues that abstract science started in ancient Greece. Iron th Iron has been around since 12 century B.C. Once it was learned it could be passed on, and all was needed is wood, iron and basic tool, it became more used. It was hard to learn but easy to teach. Iron working became very popular. The spread of iron weapons leads to the feature of classical life. Iron was a lower quality of bronze and cheap to make. Ex. Used to make axes. Iron also allowed shipbuilding to occur and allows more growth. Only coastal cities do better because they could ship back forth. There’s also an increase of making things in order to trade them to places that don’t have ith Through trade they were numerous but in a larger network -> extend of urbanization. By the 7 century, money became widespread and it eroded tribal relations that existed before. Greek Natural Philosophy Classical civilizations took old ideas and developed these ideas and developed the democratic idea. This was possible because they were smaller populations. Greeks had to rely on other societies for food and opened trade and opened science and nature. Greek philosophy was dominated by back and forth argument and interested in discussion. One important part is it was applied to old and new ideas and weren’t afraid to challenge anything. Greek science was abstract and was interested in generalization. They didn’t think individual knowledge was as important as general. One of the first Greeks that was involved in the quantification of nature which develops to math. Bernal argues that the Greeks separated the intellectual occupations and labour. Very few of them worked, and they taught in schools. The rulers and philosophers were separated from work and they had a generalized view of science. NATS 1760 – Lecture 4 – Dutch Hydraulic Engineering Medieval Dutch Hydraulic Engineering - European rainfall, thick, wet soil, iron–shod plough and oxen - Field rotation, crop, fallow, manure, population increase - Horse-collar, increased horse population, cavalry, stirrups Hydraulic Engineering in Holland - Limited land for farming, starvation, disease and warfare - Holland below sea level, hydraulic engineering to create farmland - Drainage of marshland using canals - Reciprocal effect: draining one area led to flooding in another, draining led to lowering of land further below sea level - Simple technological developments and unexpected consequences Coordination and Control - 13th century: dikes (embankments to hold in water), dams (blocking rivers), sluices (canal with gates), and drainage canals - 1100 and 1300 hundreds of dikes and dams - Excluding external water meant more flooding - Polders: units of land at the same water level with shared drainage system, labor and capital intensive - Windmills for drainage - System of autonomous water boards, predated government - No central co-ordination, taxes and public works local - The water boards were responsible for: regular inspection of facilities, recommending repair, supervising and organizing labour and materials, collecting taxes, dispute resolution - Management of problem, hydrological hypothesis, unintended consequences, technological fix, environmental changes Dutch Hydraulic Engineering Mediaeval Dutch hydraulic engineering Europe had a different agricultural climate. They had cooler weather and thicker wet soil. The soil was harder to deal with so they used an iron-shod plough and oxen. Other things were adopted like field rotation-take fields and allow fields to fallow and restore nutrients. Use one field and after done harvesting then leave it to fallow. The horse-collar was used to yoke something to a horse, and it distributes the weight so that its not around his neck. It allowed the use of horses rather than oxen. Oxen are more expensive -> bigger and more food. Horses were cheaper. This led an increase to the horse population. All these developments all allowed Europe to increase its food production in the early medieval time. In addition, the sizes of armies increased significantly. Agriculture contributed to this because more horses were needed and then they were used for Calvary. The introduction to the stirrup (Chinese invention) allowed knights to carry heavy armour, because without it its very hard. One thing that didn’t come out of this is centralized agriculture. Hydraulic Engineering in Holland Populations expanded and food supply increase. But Europe is comparatively small in terms of land that is usable for agriculture. Crop failure caused large-scale starvation, and this cased conflicts and rebellion. Holland was below sea level and became a site for agricultural using hydraulic engineering to create farmland. Swamps are nutrient rich, and once the water is drained and crops are planted. By learning how to drain the water, the Dutch came up with agricultural land where there wasn’t before. The historical pattern is changing, the use of the same hydraulic engineering to aid with agriculture, but there isn’t the formation of a large scale centralized government. Every other example of hydraulic engineering led to a centralized government. There were some small settlements. The Dutch achieved significant land drainage with simple tools and technology by digging ditches. How do human activities impact the environment? In the beginning they drain existing waterways by making them deeper. However, as they dig deeper they get lower under sea level and more prone to flooding – land sublimation. So they built more canals and waterways to get rid of the excess water. It’s a process that continues – a reciprocal effect. It was an unintended consequence of drainage, they didn’t see this when they started the process. Every time you do something on a large scale, it leads to unintended consequences and cant be predicted. Coordination and Control By the end of the 13 century there were dikes (embankments to hold water), dams (blocking rivers), sluices (canal with gates) and drainage canals. Between 1100-1300, they wanted to keep the external out and the internal out. They had to drain without letting external water in. This led to the construction of sluices. The Dutch pioneered polders which are units of land at the same water level with shared drainage system. The system works as long as there are a series of agricultural settlements at a distance between. The challenge of polder is it is labour intensive and creates more work. Drainage of land started by digging deeper and larger ditches, but the problem is the land sublimation and gravity isn’t helping out. If the land sinks enough there’s no more of an elevation factor. So digging more ditches didn’t help anymore. So they used windmills to pump water out, this allowed further drainage and maintenance of water. By the 15 th century they were a common site in Holland. This engineering led to a local centralized government, and local water maintenance-local water boards. They were organizations that were responsible for regular inspection of facilities, recommending repair, supervising and organizing labour and materials, collecting taxes and dispute revolution. These survived as autonomous local governments and then moved to larger scale governments. They came up with a storm surge barriers that let walls down when they needed to. They were to stop large storms from coming to the land. You have large-scale engineering to get excess water out, but there isn’t a centralized bureaucratic government, so there seems to be an exception. The unintended consequences led to more and more technology that needed to be developed. There is a series of technological fixes, and this developed into storm surge barriers. They were making significant changes using simple technologies. SC / NATS 1760 - Lecture 5 – Medieval Science Introduction - 10 centuries of history, end of the Classical period to end of the medieval period - What happens to science in this long span of time? - Greek natural philosophy, in techniques and ideas, decays, is transmitted across cultures, it recovers and eventually transforms - Recovering the classical world view, adapting it Feudalism and religion Classical World View - No religious explanations, exclusion of trades and labour, breaking down nature into components (elements, atoms), the importance of numbers, observation, classification and logic, theories of the elements, the causes, geocentric astronomical theories From Classical to Feudal Civilization - Western Roman Empire falls, institutions and technologies, decentralized economic and political system - Large-scale technologies, long-range technologies - Wealthy (plutocrats or barbarians), estate owning class, peasants - Land and tools in exchange for rent, tax or service on crops - Feudal demands on science, classical world view sufficed - Production more widespread and closer to people - Subsistence economy, increased technological innovation, labour shortages - Feudal need for science given mode of production Outside Europe - Dark Ages, Greek natural philosophy in India, Persia, Central Asia and China, economic and cultural success - Trade networks, manufacturing industry for luxury items o Manufacturing innovations (e.g. looms, printing) from China to West - Science thrived in India, China and Persia, mathematics, astronomy and medicine Religious Factors - Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and Hinduism - Priesthood, fixed rituals, belief in the order of the universe, sacred books, contributed to literacy, open to all, social and natural order, afterlife - Christianity and oppression, Aristotelian and Platonic ideas - Christianity as a cultural institution: literacy, education, administration and law - Initially diffuse, centralized authority (Pope, bishops), incorporated into the state - Mystical neo-Platonic theories of the soul and Christian doctrine - Greek philosophies integrated, observation and experiment ignored - Treating scripture as authoritative about natural philosophy held up scientific advance - Feudal economy did not necessitate change in Church views - Christian sects, spread of medical and astronomical knowledge - Syria, Egypt and India, Hindu introduction of the number zero - Islamic and medieval science involved a reinvestigation of classical sources, reinterpreted and expanded on the basis of their experience - Crafts knowledge, Medieval period and Renaissance Islamic Influences - The rise of Islam: widespread literacy, common religion, common culture, social stability, trade in goods and ideas - No new economic system, mercantilist, minimized slavery, no centralization of power - Use of Chinese technologies: steel, silk, paper and porcelain - Religion less restrictive of natural philosophy - Arabic translation, Greek history, poetry, drama, science and philosophy - Encyclopedias popular, inclusion of ideas from many cultures - Islamic scholars critical of Classical ideas, astrology and alchemy. - Islamic scientists most often doctors, supported by state or wealthy merchants, secular and commercial focus - Doctrine of “two truths”: one spiritual and one rational - Astrology, astronomy and mathematics, Hindu number system - Observational astronomy, diseases of the eye, optics, eyeglasses, foundation for telescopes, microscopes and cameras - Islamic scholars and practical knowledge, chemistry, distillation - Production of soda, alum and other salts, textiles - Medieval Christianity adopted the science of the Greeks, transformed by Islamic scholars into something more complex and wide reaching Medieval Science From Federal to feudal civilization Western roman empire falls, it was a centralized place. They developed a road system that allowed them to control colonies. When they fell there was no longer a centralized system. They built aqueducts and transportation technology. After the break of the empire, there were 2 groups left, the plutocrats (wealthy merchants) and barbarians. The peasants worked the land but had to give a piece of their land as a rent. They went to a decentralized political system where everyone was a farmer. The classical worldview that the Europeans produced was necessary for their lifestyle. They didn’t need better science so better science didn’t get developed. However feudalism introduced new farming techniques developed locally and spread to large areas. Feudalism is a substance economy where you make just enough to get by. But this isn’t good when there are diseases and when things don’t go well. Because of this, they didn’t get an increase in population because of the lack of food. There is a significant amount of warfare and population was low, so many people turned to technology to aid to labour. Why does science come to prominence in Europe in the 15, 16, 17 century and nowhere else? The development of technology in the medieval period contributes to the later development of science. The things they learnt with developing technology and labour later contributes to science. Feudal society didn’t need science until the late middle ages where navigation is used. Outside Europe This period isn’t really the dark ages just because there wasn’t much going on in Europe, but there was science in other countries like Persia, china etc. These countries were thriving, they had extensive trade networks, and they had luxury item that were produced and this led to more skills. Ex. Looms were developed in China. Although there wasn’t much going on scientifically in Europe, there was in other parts taken originally from the Greeks. Religious Factors Several religions came to prominence in the world in the medieval world, Islam, Christianity etc. These religions all share the same beliefs, they all had a fixed priesthood, the order of the universe, sacred books, rituals, all the religions contributed to literacy. They were open to all people, they believed that nature helps us organize our universe now, and the belief in the after- life. Christianity arose from oppression and slaves. As it became more popular then Greek philosophy came into Christianity. Christianity formed the only cultural institution to remain in Europe, it maintained literacy and the only form of education as well as law and administration of society. The church became the institution that transmitted literacy. It started out diffusely and started as a decentralized government, but then moved t a more centralized society. The state and church were separate. Generally, Greek philosophies were integrated into Christianity. They took a lot of neo-platonic ideas (spiritual side) but didn’t take the scientific parts. Treating a scripture for the basis of nature, this held up science. The reason people challenged the authority of the church because at that time there was an economic need to develop science. There were various sects and they spread classical knowledge around. The science of the Greeks expanded by Islam and medieval. Craft knowledge become important and the knowledge of craftsman become important. Islamic Influences In the medieval period the Islamic culture was the most advance during this time. It added to widespread literacy, social stability (allowed science institutions to develop) and trade in goods and ideas. They continued the existing trade and kept a decentralized government. They imported Chinese technologies and contributed to their development. They also developed many encyclopedias, and they were very good at getting a comprehensive view of ideas. That’s very important for science. Arabic Islamic scholars weren’t invested in Greek ideas because it wasn’t their culture, so they were critical of Greek ideas so they were critical of science and developed it more and advancement of science. Science was practiced largely by doctors and did science on the side, and were supported by the sides, and they had a secular commercial need. They treated science and religion as 2 separate things, so there wasn’t a need to base science on religion, and this was an advantage. The importance of astrology lead to astronomy. They also adopted the Hindu number system and more people could learn it and contribute to science. Observational astronomy was well developed, and they made a lot of research on the disease of the eye, and lead to development of optics, and the eyeglasses. This helped later contribute to cameras and microscopes. They didn’t have the Greek distain for practical knowledge they preferred theoretical knowledge, they intermingled the 2 areas, and they advanced chemistry. Textiles did well because they used basic chemistry to change color and fabric. All this was transmitted to other parts of the world and later to Europe to contribute to science. NATS 1760 – Lecture 6 – Medieval Science Part II Feudalism - Fall of the Roman Empire, feudal economy, local defense and self-sufficiency, trade in luxury goods and slaves - Land based feudal system, craft based industry - Common ownership of land, forced labor - Lords provided protection from aggressors, demanded service - Technological advances (iron, ploughs, harnesses and looms, mills) dispersed - Feudal economy expanded in scope over more land - Trade and local manufacturing, importance of towns, wealthy capitalists - Expansion and labor shortages, mechanical action and water and animal power The Christian Church - Church a landowner, source of literacy - Church opposed the rising urban class of merchants and artisans - 12 century: universities in Europe, liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music), philosophy and theology th - 12 century massive translation of Arabic works into Latin, classical ideas - Islamic and Christian problems with natural philosophy: how was the universe created, how were faith and reason related, literal readings of the Bible and Koran, and the validity of mystical experience - Conflict and change, economic needs - European science and clerics, Islamic science and doctors - Christian science part-time, supporting revelation with experience - Astronomy for calendars and astrology - All nature was a hierarchy, spheres for the fixed stars, planets and moon Technology and Industry - Technologies from China: the horse-collar, the clock, the compass, the sternpost rudder, gunpowder, paper and printing - Improved means of production and transportation, trade - Industry in the countryside, water and windmills (fulling cloth, forging iron and sawing wood), innovation outside of guilds - Millwrights as “mechanics” base of knowledge for later innovations - Mechanical clocks, magnets and the compass, force at a distance - Gunpowder, Chinese origin, land based aristocracy and wealthy republics, technical skills and natural resources - Gunpowder and medieval chemistry, theories of combustion - Cannonball trajectories and dynamics, distillation, alcohol - Paper, shortage of copyists, development of printing - Printing with movable type, literacy, cheap books, trades and the learned classes - Larger market for manufactured goods, rich merchants o “The fundamental reason why that advance [of science] was so long delayed was that in a feudal economy, Islamic or Christian, there was no way in which rational science could be used to any practical advantage.” (246) Medieval Science Part II Feudalism The feudal system was locally based and the society rebuilt itself after the fall of the roman empire. It replaced the slave society by serfs and peasant. The feudal system is land based because it is agricultural so the value is land. Agricultural products were produced locally and wasn’t shipped. The industry was largely craft-based labour, and had very little division of labour. In the medieval system the peasants worked the land which was commonly owed. Lords would use their force to control the peasants into harvesting food so that the lord could later sell it. It was a coercive system versus capitalism. In exchange for this, the peasants got protection from other people. There was a lot of death and conflict over the control of land. The technological advances – better ploughs, looms, mills. Technologies were simple but were wide-spread. This is one of the reasons why the medieval period was susceptible to conflict. There were many occurrences of starvation. The feudal economy expanded in scope of more land, if you want more power and wealth you need land, so the feudal system demanded to expand to other countries for land. What they didn’t have is a centralized system, they had a lot of local systems. Trade and local manufacturing increased in a small scale and town began to grow rather than cities. One of the things that came out is a wealthy class of merchants emerged and eventually they became the capitalists that emerged. Due to the rapid expansion there were labour shortages. Technology was substituted for technology in many cases. Water and animal power were used for this. The horse became a primary mode on the farm. Water mills were used for grinding etc. Water power is the primary method well into the late 19 century. The Christian Church The church owned land and it still owns a significant amount of land in Europe. The church was also the source of literacy, one of the few places where literacy survived after the fall of the roman empire. The church was opposed to the wealthy merchants putting themselves against the teachings of ththchurch. The church tied themselves to the economic side of the society. As early as the 12 century, universities were formed. Universities emerged at the same time the merchants emerged, what they are teaching isn’t connected to economy but it is one of the reason why they emerged. The knowledge of classical organization was lost in Europe but was kept in Arabic, and then retranslated into Latin and eventually fused to other societies. Both the Islamic and Christian world had conflicts between science and faith. However in the Islamic world there was a compromise, that science and faith are separate, and therefore science was allowed to thrive. But in the Christian world science slows down because they cant co-exist. When science conflicts with faith it creates problems. Bernal argues that this conflict was significant until economic demands required science to get better, so this trumped faith. Where there is conflict between science and faith, it is eventually overcome by economic demands. One significant difference between Islamic and Christian ways, is in Europe the only people who had education were the priests so they dominated the science. Whereas in Islam the doctors were the ones who developed science who believed too. Christian science was done part-time. There is motivation to study nature because nature is created by G-d and we want to know more about G- d. Astronomy was used for calendars in Europe. Astronomy was primarily developed in the Islamic world. The general view in Europe is hierarchy, at the top was G-d and at the bottom was rocks etc. And everything revolved around the sun. Technology and Industry A number of technologies came from China and were transferred to Europe. One of the possible factors is king’s khan who allowed routes. For example, the horse collar, clock, compass, gun powder, printing. Better means of transportation also was developed in the medieval period as manufacturing is more of a focus and land is less focused. Industry arose in the country side around water and windmills, like sawing food etc. This allowed innovation to occur outside the control of guilds. Guilds controlled labour in each area. Production becomes decentralized so its harder for guilds to control, so in the medieval period they lose control. Mill wrights were technological experts who moved from place to place. Mechanical clocks were also developed in the medieval period, and became a method of keeping track of work. Once you can keep track of time it could structure labour. Another important point is the use of magnets and compass. It introduced the idea of force at distance, which is important to the theory of gravity. The introduction to gun powder introduced cannons and weapons are larger. Only larger and wealthier lords and powers are able to own them. The ability to have gunpowder without oxygen and this challenged idea of chemistry. Also they learnt about physics with cannons. Building large guns required technical skills and natural resources, which needs money and power. This ultimately led to the demise of knights etc. Distillation is a chemical process and was used for alcohol and used for pure chemicals to sue for tests. The introduction of paper provided a cheap substitute for parchment, which was expensive to make. This led to a shortage of copyists which led to the demand of printing. Medieval manuscripts were notoriously mistaken. Printing improved accuracy and speed. Printing means there is more printed matter available, and more craftsmen were able to write their knowledge which was passed on. The emergence of larger market and trade, a middle class merchant emerged and capitalism emerged. It didn’t occur before this because money and power was concentrated, whereas in the feudal system the power and money was dispersed among the feudal system. The reason why science doesn’t thrive in the feudal economy in there is no economic need for science in a feudal system, where local agriculture was primarily used. They didn’t need science so it didn’t expand. Then in the early modern period they need to expand to other countries and this is when science changes. Science, Technology, and Colonial Expansion SC-NATS 1840F Lecture 7 - Science, Technology and Colonial Expansion - Science and technology, colonial expansion - 15 century Capitalism, international trade and European expansion, new resources and land - Technology (sailing ships, telescopes, clocks) and science (astronomy) and navigation, discovery and conquest, colonialism - ASIDE: Technology and Navigation o Mathematical equations: time, distance, angle, longitude or latitude o Angles (sextants), direction (compass), position (telescopes), time (mechanical clock) - Trade, conquest and colonization, population shifts, war and disease - Christopher Columbus, 1492, Francisco Pizzaro, 1532, Cajamarca, Peru - Inca Emperor Atahuallpa, 168 against 80,000 - Success attributed to efficiency and psychological impact of guns - 4-1/2 million sq km (Peru + Chile + Mexico + Ecuador), 504,782 sq km Spain - Europeans advantages: Horses (combat, speed, endurance), steel (weapons and armor), infectious diseases (decimating populations), centralized states (resources for colonization), writing + printing to gain information - Number and accuracy of guns, decreasing psychological impact - New world populations eventually adopted horse and guns - Combat advantages of horses: vantage point, defense of height, speed, maneuverability, armor - Horse collar, horse, stirrup, cavalry - Steel weapons versus quilted armor, steel armor - Smallpox, influenza, typhus and bubonic plague (95% of population) - Technology, science and sailing ships - Malaria, yellow fever and Europeans, Africa, India, SE Asia and New Guinea - Resources of centralized nation states, market wealth - Writing, inspiration, methods, maps, printing press - Poor communication, information, misconceptions, speed, precedent By the 15 century, the Europeans became wealthier and started adventuring to other places. They constantly needed more land because their land was small. They also needed more land for new resources. In this time a few technologies came together like sailing ships, navigation. Telescope – able to see the constellations. Clock – it was athund since the earliest of civilizations but it comes out by the medieval period. It took till the 19 century for them to be more accurate. Sextant – like a protractor. They all improved the ability to tell time distance, angle etc. There were certain calculations in astronomy that needed values which could be found with these new technologies. The better you can navigate around. According to Diamond, this was a huge population shift. Several native populations were killed through disease and war. And vice versa, diseases from America were spread to Europe. The story with Pizzaro is pretty standard. But in this case, the Incas were 168 against 80,000. The explanation is that the Europeans had firearms and it terrifies the natives and allows them to win. Spain subjugated 4-1/2 million sq km – Peru, Chile, Mexico, Ecuador, they were able to get a few times their land mass colonized so there was a lot of temptation to conquer. Also European states had a lot of resources and money to do these expeditions. They also had writing and printing to share information. According to Diamond all these factors add to the Europeans conquering. But guns weren’t really a factor because they weren’t accurate, and not significantly deadly, he says the weaponry wasn’t so successful and within a few years the native Americans acquired the technologies. By the time the Europeans came to the new world they were very experienced with horses – they were up higher, speed maneuverability, cavalry, they were also very terrifying when they were first seen. That also gave the Europeans a significant advantage, and technology from farming like stirrups also helped them here. There was also development in armour with steel, in addition they had swords etc, so they were more or less invulnerable to the natives. Disease – Diseases like small pox, influenza, were spread and made a huge difference to colonization. These diseases couldn’t have happened if it weren’t for the human population to develop the technologies to bring the animals over. Diamond points out they had the resources of centralized nation states, to have the wealth to have all the armours and horses. Another important factor is in the Incan emperor was also a religious leader so when he was killed it affected the natives. Writing – early victories were written quickly and other expeditions were followed. When they saw things worked well they wrote it down and it as spread. Also maps were produced as they learnt more about the territories, they could reproduce the exact same thing over and over. This gave the Europeans an advantage. For example the Incans didn’t think they were there for conquest. Diamond argues that the locals weren’t prepared for the Europeans. SC/NATS 1760 Lecture 8 – The Scientific Revolutioth th - The Scientific Revolution, 16 -17 century - Bernal treats economic and political factors as the sources of the scientific revolution, not the context - Bernal highlights the transformation of the Feudal economy - Rise of monarchy and the bourgeoisie - Technical improvements in agriculture and textile production - Expansion of trade due to improvements in agriculture and navigation increases markets - Capital investment in science and technology Marxism in Theory - Exploitation and the economy - From slavery to serfs to the proletariat - Capitalists own the means of production, worker alienation - Capitalism is only a stage in a larger historical process - Role of science and technology in this process - Interrelation of scientific and economic changes - Importance of science - Economic transformation more important than scientific development (“possible and necessary”) - Science is permanent, capitalism is temporary - Practical and abstract elements of science merged in scientific revolution - Economic and religious changes allow scientists to challenge ancient authorities - Competing authority, not new authority Astronomy and the Scientific Revolution - navigation, observations and mathematical structure - Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), Torun, Poland - De Revolutionibus orbium coelestium, 1543 - Problems with Ptolemy - Copernicus: o Spherical earth, rotated on axis o Large Universe o Sun-Centred model o Mars and Venus - Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) - New star in 1572, comet in 1577 - Geocentric model that had all of the planets revolving around the sun, and the sun revolving around the Earth. - Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), mathematician and a supporter of Copernicus - Elliptical orbits and non-uniform velocities - Galileo Galilei, 1564-1642, Many interests, mathematics, astronomy, mechanics, and instrumentation - Telescopic observations produced criticisms of Ptolemaic and Aristotelian cosmology: o Moons of Jupiter o Imperfections on the moon o Phases of Venus o Planets and stars - Disputes over telescopic observations - Church condemnation of Copernicanism in 1616 - Galileo was censured from holding, defending or teaching it. - Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems, 1632 - Protestant reformation and Galileo’s status The Expansion of Science - Merchant interests and manufacturing interests - Nation building, economic expansion, communication, cooperation and demand for scientific innovation - Scientists independently wealthy, merchants, landowners, lawyers, doctors, clergy - Royal Society of London and the French Royal Academy - Science and practical issues: pumping and hydraulics (mining), gunnery and mechanics (warfare) and navigation (trade) - Scientists traded ideas, published work, carried out public experiments - Experimental basis to 17 century science - Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and air-pump, vacuum, atomism, corpuscular theory Experimental Equipment - Telescope and optical theory - Microscope and new observations, microorganisms - Air pump, experiments on vacuum and combustion, respiration, sound, electricity Celestial Mechanics - Copernicus and physics, rotating and revolving Earth - Motion of stellar bodies, centrifugal force and gravity - Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), mmathematics, astronomy, optics, mechanics, chemistry, alchemy - Professor, warden of the Royal Mint, Knighthood - Principia Mathematica Philosophia Naturalis (1687) - force should decrease with distance, inverse-square law (1/r ) - Force associated with a change in motion, rather than motion itself, objects tend to preserve their motion until acted upon by a force - Universal gravity: planets, moon, falling objects, tides - Unifies terrestrial and celestial realms Revolutions in Science - Disruption of capitalism and revolution in science - Unity to 17 century science, in persons (broad interests), ideas (quantitative analysis) and applications (practical) Astronomy Ptolemy says that the sun revolves around the earth. And it moves in a uniform circle which is perfect because no matter where you start on a circle you’ll end up in the same spot. And they also goes along with the fact that the heaven is perfect. Copernicus says that the earth revolves around the sun, and this was rejected by the church. SC/NATS 1760 – Lecture 9 – Comparative History and the Scientific Revolution - Shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric planetary system - By the end of the Scientific Revolution (early 18 century): o Merging of terrestrial and celestial physics o Religious views successfully challenged o New fields of research o Scientific authority and scientific community o Public science o New technologies - These sorts of changes happened in Europe first, why? - Astronomy and agriculture, Arabic/Islamic civilization, China, Europe, Americas The Question - Why didn’t the scientific revolution happen in Arabic/Islamic civilization, where science was the most advanced anywhere at that time? o Copernicus and Arabic/Islamic astronomical models o Direct observational evidence, predictions, complexity o Practical success of Arabic astronomy, Al-Battani (d. 929) o Experimental method - “Cultural and structural impediments” to revolution − Huff's Arguments − 1. Certain “Norms” or “Values” are necessary for science to emerge in its modern form, these norms emerged in Europe and not elsewhere − 2. The breakthrough to the modern scientific viewpoint was premised upon the ability of natural philosophers to describe nature in ways that were at variance with the established views, through the creation of an “institutional neutral space” The Norms of Science - Norms or values of scientific practice, “Scientific Ethos” according to Robert Merton o 1. Universalism: that truth claims are to be subjected to preestablished impersonal criteria consonant with observation and with previously confirmed knowledge. (Scientific knowledge has rational, universal standards) o 2. Communalism: that the substantive findings of science are a product of social collaboration and are assigned to the community. They constitute a common heritage. (Scientific knowledge is public) o 3. Disinterestedness: that the scientist searches for truth for its own sake, apart from the interests of class, nation or economic reward. Such rewards may be received, but work should not be specifically directed towards obtaining them. (Scientific knowledge is enough on its own) o 4. Organized Scepticism: that judgement should be suspended until the facts are at hand and beliefs have been scrutinized in terms of empirical and logical criteria. (Science is sceptical) - Regulative ideals o Interpretive flexibility o Role-Sets - Huff: These norms were institutionalized in European science, and allowed the scientific revolution to come to full fruition Universalism: Scientific knowledge has rational, universal standards - Legal Models: o Particularistic models and legal theory o Europe on the Roman model - Communalism o Scientific knowledge is public - Restrictions on questions about nature - Methods for concealment of knowledge: o Symbolism, suppressing premises of an argument, dealing with subjects outside of their proper context, speaking enigmatically, transposing words and letters, using equivocal terms, use of contradictory premises, using extreme brevity, failing to draw obvious conclusions… - The printing press - Disinterestedness and Organized Scepticism o Scientists pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge o Science is skeptical about all knowledge claims - All scholarship anchored in religion in Islam - Astronomy linked to religion - Limitations in reason of man Emergence of an Institutional Neutral Space - Institutional neutral space - What was the institutional space in Islamic society: o Religious objections o Legal corporations, societies, organizations o Personalized or particular authority o Marginalization of foreign sciences Legal Reality: Corporations − Islamic law and corporate bodies − “… corporate personalities such as business corporations, guilds, cities, towns or universities did not exist in Islamic law” o Religious interference o Lack of standardized curriculum - In the west, the “… collective appropriation of uniform standards of teaching (and practice) by a professional group located in an institutionally autonomous location – the university, but also in professional guilds – and hence the exclusion of extraprofessional and religious censors and overseers.” Comparative History and the Scientific Revolution There was a shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric planetary system. After the scientific revolution there was a significant change with religious beliefs, they challenged the existence of the earth that it was just another planet. Ex. Galileo was put in jail and arrested by the church but in the end his foundlings were later taught in universities. The scientific change contributed to changes that lasted longer over time. They developed methods that were used and could be applied to other areas. One of the key differences between post and pre revolution, after the scientific revolution almost everything had a mathematic part to it, and before they were still developing math. Also science after the scientific revolution it gained a relative area in universities. Scientific communities and societies were formed that allowed scientists to associate with each other and share ideas. This all happened over the course of the scientific revolution. Before the revolution science was a more private area, but after it was more public. Scientists are interested in the scientific revolution, it happened in Europe, and why did it happen there and not in other parts of the world? Astronomy was important to all cultures so why didn’t the change happen to all cultures? Also geometric astronomy was quite in one part of the world ex. In China, why didn’t the major changes happen there? Huff’s Question He was very interested in why the sceintifc revolution didn’t happen in Arabic/Islamic civilization, where science was the most advanced? Copernicus used Arabic/Islamic models to construct one of the theories in astronomy. He also points that Arabic/Islamic success was practical, they were leaders in the field. Al-Battani was an example, his worked was cited well for 600 years after he passed away. His also points out the experimental method that was used ex. Optics, was developed. There were certain things that the Islam/Arab world had before the scientific revolution. He says what stopped the scientific revolution from happening rather than looking at why it could have happened? Huff’s Arguments Huff argues in order to explain that certain norms or rules are necessary for science to emerge. According to these norms they emerged at place and science emerged there. 2. If you want to develop science you need to be able to say things that might be controversial. A place where you can say what you want and not get in trouble, the place that you can do this is universities. The creation of universities was the key to the ultimate development in Europe. Norms of Science Scientific Ethos according to Robert Merton: 1. Universalism: that truth claims are to be subjected to preestablished impersonal criteria consonant with observation and with previously confirmed knowledge. (Scientific knowledge has rational, universal standards). Scientific knowledge has universal standards. There are rules that are created and then they are applied everywhere. 2. Communalism: that the substantive findings of science are a product of social collaboration and are assigned to the community. They constitute a common heritage. (Scientific knowledge is public). Scientific knowledge is public. When scientists did research they made it public. 3. Disinterestedness: that the scientist searches for truth for its own sake, apart from the interests of class, nation or economic reward. Such rewards may be received, but work should not be specifically directed towards obtaining them. (Scientific knowledge is enough on its own). The primary motivation of science is to find out more about the world. 4. Organizational Skepticism: Science is a skeptical enterprise. When scientists do their work they check things to make sure what they are doing is right. Do norms and values have to hold at all times to be considered norms? No they do not. Norms work according to regulative ideals, they don’t force you to do anything, but they push you in one direction to another. Interpretative flexibility, ex. Organized skepticism, they can be interpretative in different ways. Role-sets, another reason is science sometimes clash with other roles in society. These values don’t dictate what scientists do but they influence. These norms were institutionalized in Europe and allowed science to develop. They came to dominate science by influence. Universalism In Arabic Islamic societies legal norms were the most developed. Huff looks at scientific law as developed elsewhere. Scientific models were developed to be similar to the legal realm. His first point is that there was resistance in the Arabic society with legal realm and so too with science. For example punishments were particular rather than have a legal system. It’s a particularistic society rather than a generalist. Huff argues with the Roman model is that there are natural norms that are adopted. We can know what these laws are and we can apply them, this is from the legal and scientific perspective. You have to believe that science makes sense. According to Huff the particular Arab/Islam society didn’t believe that so it didn’t develop there. Huff also argues that scientific knowledge is public but in Arabic/Islamic cultures science was hidden. Certain methods were used to conceal knowledge who didn’t have that background. This doesn’t fit well with the values of science. As well, the printing press wasn’t used based on the idea that the knowledge is supposed to be concealed. Whereas in Europe it was used for a long time. Also there were restrictions on questions about nature. Disinterestedness The formation of universities allowed for science to flourish. You couldn’t have organized skepticism in the Arab/Islam world because science and religion clash, so they couldn’t argue against religion. Huff also points out that people weren’t able to understand knowledge other than through religion. Emergence of Institutional Space The legal system was set up that if people did things that were against religion there was something associated with it. Also there was no concept of a corporation that come together to defend others in Islamic law. In the Arabic/Islamic world education didn’t have standards, you would choose a scholar to learn with. In Europe the education was standardized. Legal Reality: Corporations Groups of people who have come together and organized themselves in some way. According to Islamic law we are all part of one big community so it doesn’t make sense to divide into smaller groups. So there is no reason to make legal difference like guilds, cities etc. This hindered the ability of science to develop, because once you create a different group they are protected and can do whatever they wanted. According to Huff science needs to be standardized and general. In the west, the “… collective appropriation of uniform standards of teaching (and practice) by a professional group located in an institutionally autonomous location – the university, but also in professional guilds – and hence the exclusion of extraprofessional and religious censors and overseers.” People could say what they wanted to and they could challenge the scientific idea. It was possible to be critical of the church ideas, some were punished for that, but the information was later developed. The inability to create a place where people could say what they wanted hindered the Islamic world from moving t a geocentric world to a heliocentric world. NATS 1760 Lecture 10 – Commerce and the Scientific Revolution - Bernal – capitalism and scientific growth, astronomy and navigation Objectivity and the Growth of Science - natural objects, personal acquaintance - Complex theories and sophisticated mathematics - Scientific revolution and the “first age of global commerce” - Medicine and the life sciences - Observational knowledge, tradesmen and common people - Travelers: sailors, tourists, doctors, merchants, diplomats - European middle class in Renaissance, dominant personal, intellectual and economic interests - Foreign spices, tobacco, chocolate, coffee and tea, cabinets of curiosities, gardens - Colonial holdings, “data base” of science, local knowledge Commerce and Knowledge - Descriptive knowledge of objects and economic transactions - Trade methods for handling objects imported into science - Knowledge of objects, good taste and social standing - Objectivity: the kind of knowledge related to the detailed acquaintance with objects - Early modern preference for acquaintance over discourse Scientific Growth - Arguments for the improvement of science: o Science grows in a democracy (Greece) o Science grows when spurred on by economic demands (Bernal) o Science grows when there is a “free space” for inquiry (Huff) o Science grows when commerce increases (Cook) - Common thread: open inquiry - Abstract theoretical knowledge and knowledge of objects Commerce and the Scientific Revolution Objectivity and the growth of science Cook starts his argument that people become acquainted with things and simple observations could relate to science in simple ways. People who aren’t scientists make observations and contribute to science. But if you only look at what scientists do you can miss what isn’t contributed. Many people view science as complex theories and mathematics but in addition observations matter as well. Just like Bernal he points out that the scientific revolution came around the time when countries around the world were trading, at the same time science emerges. Cook focuses more on life sciences as oppose to astronomy. He focuses in on observational knowledge he claims that its collected by tradesman and everyday people Its important to look at this and see how science evolves. In order to find the observational knowledge, he focuses on mundane every activities. He talks about reports brought back from doctor, sailors etc and these reports were understood by scientists and written down. Whats important is that these observations from non-scientists added to science. Cook also argues that the Europeans middle class becomes powerful. And the interest in this middle class became dominant in society – economic and social aspects. These interests shaped society and then science. At this time it was a period of growth and trade, and it became fashionable to have things from other countries. Europeans consumed foreign goods like spices, chocolate etc. They liked to collect strange things from other countries and show them to others. This is very important because at this time people were revisiting classical knowledge from the Greeks and challenged the info. There was also the emergence of the exotic gardens and brought back plants from other countries. Cook’s point is that the desire for new things leads to knowledge about them, and this adds to science. Science benefited immensely from colonialism, there was new data from the new world which added to the “data base” of science. Commerce and Knowledge Knowledge of objects became useful as well, and therefore trade and commerce inspired people to know more about objects, which led to the development of science. The need to trade of goods and bring them over long distances in good shape added to the preservation of them and this added to science. As well, knowing a lot about plants and animals from the new world was trendy. Knowing about these objects became socially desirable and status. It became more important to say that you saw and held the object rather than read about it, whereas in the medieval period it was more about what was read in books. It wasn’t enough to just get knowledge from books, and this is a very important shift. Cook labels this as objectivity. Cooks highlighting the knowledge was plants was very important to science rather than book knowledge. Scientific Growth Science improves on certain circumstances. Science tends to do well in a democracy, example with the Greeks. Many authors have argued that science thrives in a democracy. Another argument is science grows when there are economic demands. Science also grows when there is a free space to say what you want which is huff’s arguments. Cooks arguments is that science improves when we have become more knowledgeable in objects, and a free exchange in goods. The common thread between all this is open inquiry, there has to be an open space to work on science without a restriction. NATS 1760 6.0 B – Lecture 12 – Science and The Industrial Revolution - Discoveries, connections with science and industry, trends th - Astronomy and navigation, 19 century industry and science Seventeenth Century Science - Growth and slowdown of science over 17 century - Merchants shifting to land investments (lower risk) - Established interests, traditional industries, regular profits and control - Other explanations: o Newton’s science close to complete, working out details o Benefits of science to navigation achieved, subsequent developments slower o Merchants not knowledgeable about science - 17 century science, navigation, manufacturing and agriculture - Scientific societies, Sweden, Russia and Prussia Scientific Developments in the 18 Centuryh - Science increased in scope rather than depth, new fields - Electricity, public demonstrations, practical uses, electric rail, distributed power - Botany, medicinal uses, timber, mining - Chemistry – chemical versus manual bleaching, weeks to days - 18 century science worked out Newton’s theories, assumed correct - Political changes and changes in science, French Revolution, weights and measures, metric system, science education reforms Science and the Nineteenth Century - Aniline artificial dyes, 19 century, textile industry, natural dye economies (India) - Capitalists, chemistry, local industry, weavers - Chemistry, fertilizers, productivity, anesthetics - Specialized scientific societies, disciplines and journals, science and universities - wealthy amateur to middle class professional - Feedback from industry to science: thermodynamics data from steam engines - Modern form of industry emerges: application of science to production, larger firms and conglomerates, science used in war, large scale science, industrial research laboratory Science and the Industrial Revolution How science did or didn’t contribute to the industrial revolution? Bernal is less interested in individual scientists and more interested in how did it contribute to the industry. Science doesn’t really benefit industry significantly until the 19 century. Seventeenth Century Growth At the end of the 17 century science started to slow down whereas the beginning grew rapidly, Bernal attributes this to social and economic reasons. He argues that a new class of merchants arose who were less interested in science and more interested in acquiring land. They became less into risks by the end of the century. Capitalitism turns science more conservative over time since those in power want to stay in power. Other explanations: 1. Newton’s work on the theory of gravity was so advanced that few people want to challenge it and they worked on the ideas around it. Similar arguments were made about Einstein. 2. As people tried to do other things they discovered it was harder than they thought. It was easier to improve physics and astronomy rather than other parts of science. ex. Organic chemistry, its very hard to improve.3. In the early 17 century there were gentlemen scholars who were interested in science, which sped it up. Later on science became an activity in the side. And the manufacturers were the ones who developed it. Science contributed significantly to navigation but not agriculture and manufacturing which are main parts of the economy. Where science did flourish is in scientific societies like Sweden and Russia. 18 Century Bernal argues that science increased in scope rather than in depth, new fields developed rather than more depth. Ex. Electricity, it became a specific field of research. Originally it was used for tricks and demonstrations, for athsement. This changed as scientists became more interested in th it, ex. Electric rail. Prior to 18 century, botany was for medicinal purposes and then in the 18 century plants were studied more to see how they could be used for manufacturing ex. Timber and mining. Chemistry contributed to chemical bleaching, it used to start to take a few months and then they figured out how to do in a couple days, which contributed to industry. 2 ways to change process: First way is to make products , which can be sold. The second thing science does is to change process, if you make something cheaper then to make more money. Both things are important for capitalism, which is why science became a high in demand thing in the 18 century. Creating chemical bleaches is a change in product, which is an example to show that. Most scientists looked to Newton and they used his methods in other areas. He invented calculus, and after this they attempted to use mathematics for all areas. He also mentions that important political changes were going on ex. The French revolution led to the introduction of measurement, weights, metric system – leads to standardization. th Science and the 19 century Bernal talks about the chemical industry because it contributes to textiles. For many years the only way to make colourful clothing is by natural dyes in India. And then in the 19 century they were able to make artificial dyes which made them the exporter of cheap clothing, which destroyed the whole natural dye industry. Its cheaper for machines to be used then to have workers do the work – weavers. Chemistry contributed to aesthetics and fertilizers – contributes the productivity of agriculture by a lot, where its good for our health or environment is another argument. They saw the maximization of science in universities, journals, scientific s societies in different areas. Science in universities becomes the main part of it and universities become research based. Over the course of 300 years science goes from something done on the side for fun to a middle class profession. Early steam engines were developed without scientific output, what’s interesting is the steam engine contributed to science by creatingthata about heat engines, which was transferred back to science. The last point is by the 19 century, we begin to see the outline of modern industries. Ex. The application of science in all industrial production. The bigger companies can do more science and further run the industry. Science isn’t only done by individuals, companies do science in laboratories in companies, it started in Germany and it shifted a bit to universities who do research for companies. NATS 1760 – Lecture 12 - Expansion and Exploitation in the Industrial Revolution Political Underpinnings of the Industrial Revolution - The Industrial Revolution - 18 to the 19 century, production changes, factory labor, steam engines - Technology and management, explosion in production and consumption - Population increase, production increase, environmental burden - Political and economic forces, exploitation of nature, shift from mercantilism to capitalism - Mercantilism: nations should maintain a positive balance of trade by having more exports than imports, and that they should hoard specie (gold or silver) Modes of Production before the Industrial Revolution - Three dominant modes of production before the Industrial Revolution: o Artisanal production: highly skilled artisans or craftsmen produced goods, they trained apprentices, there was little division of labour, and most goods were produced from start to finish by one individual o Mass-production: there was limited mass-production in the pre-Industrial Revolution period, in the putting-out system. Groups of workers would perform one operation on a product, moving it on to the next group to perform the next operation. This work was done in small buildings in rural areas, and merchants controlled production o Factory production: when large numbers of labourers were needed and could be gathered at one particular place, factory production was possible, but this was limited to a few fields (ship production, mining) - Industrial Revolution: dominance of last two modes of production, deskilling, lower wages, larger scale cheap production - Workers displaced from agriculture to urban areas, value of income decreased, market versus home production - Cotton, tropical plant, production of cheap clothing, traded for slaves used on sugar plantations - Displaced agricultural laborers, colony resources and markets - Colonial powers, land shortage, cotton growth - Capitalist investment in land, peerages and overseas ventures - Investment in mills and factories by new entrepreneurial class - Factories initially cheap, tight margins, savings from labor, lowered wages, extended working day, child labor th Competition for Empire in the 19 Century - Nineteenth century competition between English and French for control of global trade and resources - Disrupting trade, military strength and economic power - French sealed off Europe from British trade, Britain secured colonial markets in compensation - British taxed Indian population, used funds for purchases of Chinese silks, cottons and teas, eliminating the need to use specie (silver and gold) - Shift from West Indies (sugar and slaves) to East Indies (India), transfer from mercantilism to industrial capitalism - Economy of West Indies destroyed, abandonment of slavery an economic issue - 1813, cheap UK cotton exports to India (1873 – 60% of UK cotton exports to India) - Mercantilism and control of Spanish silver, dominance of luxury trade (furs, sugar, spices, Indian cotton) - Sugar beet and abandonment of the West Indies slave population - India and North America important to UK as markets - 18 century UK moved to gold standard, Brazillian gold from Portugal, paper money - 1816 gold standard for paper money, import and export controls on gold lifted - Shift from silver to gold a political change based on imperial trade possibilities - London centre of a financial empire in European commerce - Not ownership that matters, but control of the flow of capital - Trade favored importing of raw materials and exporting of manufactured goods - Tariffs reduced and trade liberalized, trade, not specie, was core of the shift from mercantilism to capitalism, and key to expansion of the industrial revolution Expansion and Exploitation in the industrial revolution From the 18 to the 19 century. The industrial revolution is most important to us in terms of production, and how factory labour is done. After the industrial revolution a lot more labour was done. Steam engines were introduced over the course of the industrial revolution. It’s a mechanical form of something we used to do by nature or animals. It’s a technological man- based change. We change the way work is done, we go from an artisanal method to one that is factory based, and mass produced. The scale of production increased, which is what allows us to mass-produce things. The period leading up to the industrial revolution, population also increased, which could be a spur for the industrial revolution. The impact on the environment also added to the industrial revolution. Ex. Creates more waste and uses more energy. Political and economic forces were also important in this time. One force includes: Nature could be used to our benefit when pushed to the maximum. Theres a shift from mercantilism to capitalism. Mercantilism; nations should maintain a positive balance of trade by having more exports than imports, and that they should hoard specie (gold and silver). Get as most silver and gold as you can. Modes of production A way of making things that we consume. According to Naler, there were 3 primary modes. Before the industrial revolution, these modes existed by they changed. 1. Artisanal production occurs when highly skilled artisans or craftsman produced goods themselves, from the beginning to the end. It was small scale and they trained apprentices and this was part of the production. Theres little division of labour, all the tasks were done by one artisan. It is now a minority way of production. 2. Mass-production: there was limited mass-production in the pre-industrial revolution period. Ex. Textiles. It was work in small building and small cities. 3. Factory production: when large numbers of labourers were needed and could be gathered at one particular place. It became the dominant mode of production after the industrial revolution. Most factory production today is also mass-production, so also combine. The industrial revolution saw the 2 last modes as the dominant modes. However, It deskilled the workers over the course of the industrial revolution. The amount of skill needed was less. It also saw a widespread lowering of wages. With this it lower costs for capitalists and decreased wages for the labourists and this produced larger scale cheap production. Once this happened it was cheaper to make larger scale rather than making things themselves. The industrial revolution starts in the textile industry. Common textiles were important with cotton, which could be used to trade for slaves in the economy. This caused colonial markets to become important, they became valuable for the goods they were manufacturing. Initially for their resources and then for the goods they manufactured from the resources. One of the challenges in Europe is it very small, so they need land to produce food and couldn’t grow cotton, where it is very land intensive. In the beginning of the revolution, there was a lot of capitalist investment in lands. Then they realized they could make money in production and in factories. Initially the factories were cheap, and so cheap that you didn’t need a lot of money to invest. But as a result of this the margins were relatively tight, so they did everything they did to save money, so they paid cheap wages, and this caused cheap scale labour. They also extended the long working day, and introduced child labour. th Competition for empire in the 19 century There was a widespread global competition between English and French for control of global trade and resources. Disrupting trade is as important as a military victory. The more people you have in the country, the more people to support. Trade disruption was also effective in military strength, if you cut off trade routes and resources of other countries, then countries aren’t able to build ships etc. They taxed the local colonies to sell goods, get tax revenue. There is also a transition in the economy, from mercantilism to industrial capitalism, from West Indies with sugar and slaves, to east indies (India). India went from a luxury fabric exporter to a cheap cotton export. Mercantilism itself depended on the control of Spanish silver, and dominance of luxury trade. There was also the introduction of the sugar beet. With the industrial revolution, there is a strong awareness of cultivating markets. So they lowered the cost of production to make more money, but to do that you need to make a lot of things cheap. So you need to convince people to buy and have large markets to buy. The Indies and North America were important to the Uk for markets. Gold and silver is what everyone wanted, but paper money was introduced because gold is more valuable. London became the center of the financial empire in European commerce. Its not ownership but rather how capital flows from one place to another. Trade policy also shifted from favour of importing raw materials and exporting of manufacturing goods. Tariffs were introduced, and trade was liberalized, as trade became the focus and not the hoarding of gold and silver. This is the key to the industrial revolution. th th SC/NATS 1760 – Lecture 13 – Science and Industry in the 18 and 19 Centuries - Economic factors do not determine “what is found out”, but “when and how” new facts are introduced Steam Engine and Thermodynamic Theory - Thermodynamic theory and steam engines - Vacuum and atmospheric pressure - Christian Huygens & Denis Papin (1673) small charge of gunpowder exploded in cylinder, vacuum causes cylinder to be pushed downwards by air pressure, lifting 1600lbs through 5 feet - Steam engine: piston covers chamber, steam pushes it up, cooling the steam causes it to condense, creating vacuum, and weight of atmosphere presses down - Thomas Newcomen: steam engine in 1712 - Newcomen engine inefficient, demonstrated that a vacuum could be harnessed - James Watt introduced a separate condenser for steam, improved effic
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