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Nats notes jan - feb.docx

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Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

Jan 22,2013 - WW1 and WW2 - Greater enthusiasm for science and technology - Big Science Philosophy - Began to develop in the us before they entered into WW2 - What does big science mean? Scientific research using many different types of disciplines - Coming together to work on a single research project - Lots of people, lots of money - Time, money and resources - 20 century big role for government and military agencies - Big science funded by the state - Projects require justification for lots of money spent on lots of resources - Often war-related or medical-related so public believes they’re important - An expectation of concrete results - Can be basic science or applied science. - Projects require a delicate balance between scientific interest and government/military institutions involved. - Open and collaborative, requires compromisation. - Where did it begin to develop? Before US enters into WW2 - The US was concerned with their position if they would fight Nazi Germany - Us can’t compete with technological process of Nazi Germany - The Nazi’s moved one step ahead of other countries in scientific technology such as aviation - Change in an approach at war - Economic downturn, rise of socialist Nazi based political party - Develop a far more powerful and strong army base by improving existing technology - Areas like airplane development as well as tank technology - Extremely important - Did not want to engage in trench warfare - The blitz creek, tactical attack against Nazi enemies - Attempt to attack and subdue their enemy’s as quickly as possible - Attack from the air and from the ground, catch enemies off guard, created Nazi success - US aware of these tactics, if the us enters the war they may not be able to compete with this Nazi advantage - National defense research council (1940) - Office of scientific research and development - Military field, politics, major industries/organizations in the country - Decided to invest their money in specific ways - Fund big business, big industries and other industries that had a good track record of scientific success - OSRD will end up spending 3 million + in scientific research - The atomic bomb - Electronics got most money during WWII - Start to see use of computers in WWII - Funding of big organizations continues into Cold War - Big connection between government and military need and research being done within universities and military - Concerned that research being done at the dictate of government and military interest - “Civillian Projects” Military Industry Complex. - Nazi Germany excelled in improving on existing technologies—Interwar period between WWI AND WWII - Advancements in aviation technology Jan 29, 2013 - Based on content from ww1 – on exam - One based on content ww3 – on exam - Science technology and political ideology – on exam - Relationship between science, technology and ideology in the cold war period - Events in Nazi Germany ww2, how Hitler’s desire to create a perfect Iranian race. - Cancer research – germ and disease free race - Actions of the very sane, very rational - Cold war- famous of case studies, Lysenko affair - Lysenko because of support, given lots of money and opportunities to conduct his research - Scientists who disagreed with Lysenko often punished - Genetic research banned because of meshing with this type of science and technology - Relationship between science and politics can take place in dictatorship or in a democracy - Most powerful and influential scientist in united states, J Robert openhimer - Primer physicist - Political philosophy - Depression suffered economic loss, gap between rich and poor growing wider over time. - Equality amongst individuals, popular way of thinking amongst many people - People from north America go into soviet union to learn about communist philosophy - 1940s – WW2 Openhimer plays a huge role in the Manhattan project - Always a big supporter of the atomic bomb project - Many individuals had grave misgivings about dropping the bomb on the Japanese population - Key research in the Manhattan project, and support of atomic bomb, end of WW2 known as the father of the atomic bomb in the United States. - Greatly rewarded for his effort in academia and science - Princeton university - Become the chair of general advisory committe
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