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Lecture 10

Lecture Ten: Science and Technology - The Environment - Religion

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Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

Lecture Ten: Science and Technology - The Environment - Religion October 20, 2011 Nature as a Living Organism The notion of nature was considered to be a living thing up until the 1500s. -Believed to be “Mother Nature” -Compared to a nurturing mother figure who provided resources for people to live. -Although portrayed as a kind mother, Mother Nature was also feared because it was an uncontrollable entity -Nature could give and take away just as easily the resources for life Francis Bacon A lawyer who had no training in natural science or technical arts -Despite this, he tried to change attitudes towards natural philosophy and natural arts -Had a great interest in these subjects He was an advocate of using scientific knowledge for a specific purpose -Movement away from knowledge for knowledge’s sake -He wanted to use scientific knowledge to benefit the state -Placed high value on both natural science and the technical arts Used the theory of Induction -Wanted to change the way scientific process was done -Thought that this method would show people a more accurate and truer way to obtain knowledge Hierarchy of this Theory -Lowest level: people who were instructed to obtain facts -Middle level: people who were instructed to analyze and verify the facts -Highest level: elites who would take the checked facts and would use them to make theories Religion -Francis was preoccupied with the obtaining of religious salvation -Thought it was important for all humans to obtain their original premier status (get back the status of Adam and Eve before being kicked out of the Garden of Eden) - Thought it was man’s duty to control all of the other creatures of Nature (was believed to be a way of obtaining the status that was lost) - Saw the story of Adam and Eve as the first step in the loss of the power of humans over nature Francis saw science and technology as the means to gain control and manipulate nature and the environment. Nature as a living organism, something to be respected, feared and regarded with awe was the dominant theory until the first industrial revolution. After this, Bacon’s theory became popular. - Bacon theorized that nature was something to be dominated, manipulated and used at will for the benefit of humans Feminist Claims - Claim that Bacon’s claims were misogynistic (women-hating) - Believed that the “raping and torture” of nature could be compared to the raping and torture of women.
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