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Lecture 11

Lecture Eleven: The Industrial Revolution

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Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

Lecture Eleven: The Industrial Revolution October 25, 2011 Characteristics of First Industrial Revolution England in 1780’s had a significant population growth - This meant scarce resources, such as land (England has no way to expand) A major shift from manual labour to more machine production - Machines were operated by water and steam power - New forms of managing labour - Factory system of production - New methods of communication and transportation Effects of Machine Production - Larger volume of goods produced - Lower wages for workers as they became less skilled - Lower quality goods Changes in Transportation - Increased use of canals - Beginning to use the railways for transportation Changing Communication Technologies - Increasing use of the telegraph - Railway and canal systems also improved communication Industrialization has been associated with a period of sustained economic growth. - Unlike other periods of time, the growth did not rise and fall very quickly - Growth continued for very long periods of time Changes in Transportation Bottlenecks - refers to an area of production or manufacturing that is problematic, and affects all other areas of production of manufacturing. During this time, people were producing more iron and metal than ever before. These were materials needed to build railways. Prior to the use of railways, the roads were the main way to travel - As population grew, too many people were on the roads and it was inefficient -The roads were deteriorating due to over-usage Agriculture Closure of common lands -Made it difficult for agricultural workers to continue growing crops -Many farmers could no longer afford it and were forced into the growing cities -Farmers became a main part of the new factory labour force. New Agricultural Trends -People switched from a three field system to a four field system -Clovers and turnips were now more commonly grown -Meat became in higher demand because the population was growing considerably. Four Major Features of the Industrial Age Changes in the Energy Sources Timber was the main energy source, but it was quickly becoming a scarce resource. -It therefore became increasingly expensive and less used There was a switch from renewable to non-renewable resources -Coal and oil were used as the steam engine became more popular -Steam engines were originally used to eliminate excess water, they were extremely inefficient at first and could only be used in coal mines because that was the only place there was a steady supply of coal Increase of energy consumption -Greater population means that more energy is required for basic life -The building and running of factories required a lot of energy -The railways required much energy -Consumption increased 5 to 10 times over -Switches from renewable to nonrenewable resources -This caused massive amounts of pollution in the cities Hygiene Due to overcrowding and poor living conditions, hygeine was not very good at the time. Pollution often made everything very dirty. - People would complain of being covered in soot immediately after arriving in the city - Water was extremely dirty and disease spread very quickly - Disposal meth
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