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Lecture 15

Lecture Fifteen: Science, Technology and the Birth of Modern Industry

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

Lecture Fifteen: Science, Technology and the Birth of Modern Industry November 10, 2011 Recap: Relationship Between Science and Technology Greeks Philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato - made a separation between natural science and technical knowledge Natural philosophy versus Technical Knowledge - Considered to be superior to technical arts - Knowledge for knowledge’s sake - Those who practiced natural philosophy were often of a higher status in society - Natural science knowledge was considered to be superior because it was about global things as opposed to just subject specific knowledge - Those who practiced technical knowledge did not always know how they came about some of their discoveries (trial and error) - Technical knowledge considered to be mundane and average Not supported by the church - Natural philosophy was originally considered to be heretical - Technical knowledge was about the material world, which the church didn't care about that much - Soon there was a merging of natural philosophy and church (Aristotle’s ideas were changed slightly) - Hugh of St Victor tried to link technical knowledge to religion to raise the status of technical knowledge Changing Attitudes Renaissance - Moving away from the idea of “knowledge for knowledge’s sake” - The status of technology is changing in society - Engineers were raising their status in society (they were aligned to the royal courts and the elite of Europe) - Natural and technical knowledge were seen as ways to make money, raise status in society and gain fame - Growing critiques of Aristotle's ideas - The use of technical instruments in scientific experiments to manipulate nature - The development of social spaces for people to share their knowledge, creating a space for interaction between people studying natural science and technology - Hybrid humans: those who had an interest in both fields (this did not happen before) Francis Bacon - Critical of Aristotle “knowledge for knowledge’s sake” - Believed in truth and youthfulness (thought they were the same) - Linked natural philosophy and technology to the church - Thought they were both useful tools in helping humans gain control over the rest of Gods creatures First Industrial Revolution Steam Engine - Created with little or no scientific knowledge - Lead to more scientific knowledge, not the other way around as previously thought The Second Industrial Age - Overview Geography The second industrial age was not concentrated in one part of the world, like the first industrial revolution - Germany - United States These two countries were newly unified and desperate to catch up to England in terms of industrialization - They were more open to new techniques and practices than Britain - Britain had created a huge infrastructure based on traditional methods of factories and factory structures - They were less flexible and open to change than Germany and the United States Germany Educational Reforms Technical Schools - Formal place where people would receive a technical education - Prior to this, engineering was a discipline that would not require a formal education - They would study under someone for a period of time before becoming an engineer - By the 19th century, engineers had a desire to be seen as a profession, like a lawyer or doctor Universities - This was where people would pursue their higher learning - There was the addition of research laboratories to universities - Prior to this, scientists in university were learning only the discoveries of past scientists - Now with the labs, students would be able to generate new scientific knowledge - This has become the new social spaces for people to collaborate their ideas (scientists and engineers would meet here) Increased Use of the Textbook - The universities would now use textbooks to teach science - This would standardize knowledge (students would all learn about all types of science instead of only learning from one professor) PhD - People now had to achieve a PhD in order to call themselves a scientist - Before, people who were wealthily or had had status would consider themselves scient
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