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Lecture 12

NATS 1840 Lecture 12: Lecture 12 – Science Changes the Game - Industrial Expansion Magnified

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Natural Science
NATS 1840
Ian Slater

Lecture 12 – Science Changes the Game: Industrial Expansion Magnified Monday, February 24, 2014 NATS 1840 Lecture 12 – Science Changes the Game: Industrial Expansion Magnified - 18 century, craft production, manufacturing, science, engineers – 18 Century -th craftsmen; by 19 century, production was factory based, Science gets added to the process, makes it more significant, science changed the way industry operated - Science and industry (electrical and chemical) – first industry that took on science Noble’s Analysis of Science and Industry - Late 19 / early 20 century, science, new products, production methods, efficiencies – o Science brings two things: 1. Allows you the make new products, e.g. plastic (science created and given to industry), 2. Increase your productive efficiency, speeds up process, science can take a process and speed it up; o Allows industry to be more competitive, allowed competitive advantage, science became popular - Theoretical science and applied science, shift of interest over century – o Understand how the world works; scientific work was applied; Applied science always has a practical goal; develop a new theory; something we can buy, sell, or manufacture. - Capitalists, publications, university contacts, R+D laboratories, science for profit, efficiency – o University researchers were doing work separately; attracted attention; industrialists said maybe we can do that too/stuff could be useful to us; university published their work/reports, etc.; - Science based industry in US, chemistry and physics (electricity) - Scientific R+D long and expensive, excess capital, traditional manufacturing profits, financial speculation, Industrial consolidation (vertical integration) th o Others can invest in company; reduce costs; End of 19 century – industries creating new products in the market, entrepreneurs started disappearing - Beyond resources of individual entrepreneur - Family owned industries, large corporations, diverse products, consolidation – diverse product line, big multinational corporations ruled - 1920’s: 500+ mergers in chemical & electrical industries - Small number of large companies dominant: Dow, Union Carbide, Dupont - dominate their individual industries - Wide range of products: Union Carbide: carbon, alloys, oxyacetylene, liquid gas, bakelite and plastics, Dupont explosives, gasoline, and automobile applications – Big firms using scientific research - Science, variety of applications, industrial laboratories - Diffusion to petroleum, metallurgy, paper, cement, photography, fertilizer, steel industries – applied the same methods on different industries Lecture 12 – Science Changes the Game: Industrial Expansion Magnified Monday, February 24, 2014 The Chemical Industry in the US - Industrial revolution, high demand, batch production and synthetics – batch production or artificial production – large amounts of production th - Generic chemicals: acids, alkalis, inorganic salts for manufacturers – beginning of 19 century, batch produce acids so they can use them in different industries to manufacture - Industries requiring chemicals for manufacturing: textiles, paper, leather, glass, soap, paint, petroleum, rubber, electrical equipment, fertilizers, insecticides, automobile industry - Dyes in textile and printing, long history - Before WWI, German chemical dyes advanced: initial lead, low cost, university science R+D network, patents – Germans dominated the market of chemicals, they had patents - After WWI, US acquires German patents - Tariff barriers to protect domestic chemical industry – a charge you put on foreign products, making people more likely to buy domestic products - US i
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