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Lecture 14

NATS 1840 Lecture 14: Lecture 14 - Summary (3)

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Natural Science
NATS 1840
Ian Slater

NATS 1840 Lecture 14 – Science Changes the Game: Industrial Expansion Magnified - 18 century, craft production, manufacturing, science, engineers - Science and industry (electrical and chemical) Noble’s Analysis of Science and Industry - Late 19 / early 20 century, science, new products, production methods, efficiencies - Theoretical science and applied science, shift of interest over century - Capitalists, publications, university contacts, R+D laboratories, science for profit, efficiency - Science based industry in US, chemistry and physics (electricity) - Scientific R+D long and expensive, excess capital, traditional manufacturing profits, financial speculation, Industrial consolidation (vertical integration) - Beyond resources of individual entrepreneur - Family owned industries, large corporations, diverse products, consolidation - 1920’s: 500+ mergers in chemical & electrical industries - small number of large companies dominant: Dow, Union Carbide, Dupont - Wide range of products: Union Carbide: carbon, alloys, oxyacetylene, liquid gas, bakelite and plastics, Dupont explosives, gasoline, and automobile applications - Science, variety of applications, industrial laboratories - Diffusion to petroleum, metallurgy, paper, cement, photography, fertilizer, steel industries The Chemical Industry in the US - industrial revolution, high demand, batch production and synthetics - Generic chemicals: acids, alkalis, inorganic salts for manufacturers - Industries requiring chemicals for manufacturing: textiles, paper, leather, glass, soap, paint, petroleum, rubber, electrical equipment, fertilizers, insecticides, automobile industry - Dyes in textile and printing, long history - Before WWI, German chemical dyes advanced: initial lead, low cost, university science R+D network, patents - After WWI, US acquires German patents - Tariff barriers to protect domestic chemical industry - US industry processes: catalytic, liquefying of air, electrochemical, organic synthesis - Foreign processes, out producing sources by turn of century - Electrolytic process: salts, soda, chlorine and bromine The Reciprocal Relationship between Science and Industry - Science: new processes and products, monopoli
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