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Lecture 16

NATS 1840 Lecture 16: Lecture 16 - Summary (1)

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Natural Science
NATS 1840
Ian Slater

NATS 1510 – Lecture 16 – The Car The Automobile Today - The automobile is pervasive & integrated in North America - Pervasive: millions \owned, millions produced - Integrated: many social activities pursued in cars - restrictions on use: licensing and cost of operation - Cars are intertwined with pop culture, North American values; individual freedom, economic prosperity, sign of adulthood - motor vehicle, urbanization and suburbanization, personal mobility, distribution of goods What’s the Problem? - Internal combustion engine, gasoline, greenhouse gasses - Environmentalism in the modern world, mass production, individual action - Individual car pollution, millions of cars, aggregation of damage - Individual contribution small, altering usage difficult - Exhaust as an environmental and health problem - technological fix or a social fix - A technological fix – design change (hybrid, electric), social fix – using technology differently (carpooling, transit) - Technological fixes, technical difficultly, social fixes, habit The History of the Electric Car - Electric, gas & steam cars, turn of century - 1898 a New York Sun article stated that, At that busy corner, Grand Street and the Bowery, there may be seen cars propelled by five different methods of propulsion – by steam, by cable, by underground trolley, by storage battery and by horses. [Kirsch, 11] - 1885 Gottlieb Daimler & Carl Benz, liquid benzene fuel for cars - 1887, Rudolph Diesel, compressed fuel injection - Commercial electric and steam cars predated gasoline powered cars - First electric car in 1894, electric cabs in NY in 1897 How Did the Designs Stack Up? Steam Cars - Lighter, high pressure & temperature - Steamboat, train boiler explosions 1800’s, stigma - Steam flexible , gasoline, kerosene, wood or coal - Pure water, clogging, unreliable, expensive to fix, and too dangerous Electric Cars - Electric engine flexibility, 2-3X rated power (hills, mud), gasoline stall - Stopped & restarted easily, commercial use - Fueling, technical & organizational challenges - 1909 over 4000 central charging stations over United States - Standardization poor, charging technology unreliable - Electric industry ignored, vanity technology - Batteries: limited storage capacity, charging times varied - Long distance rail shipping, local by automobile, electric cars sufficient - Markets expanded, greater range of internal combustion advantage - Electric motors: frequent small adjustments by experts - Private clients,
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