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Beer and Sandwiches Chapters 28 and 29

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Natural Science
NATS 1840
Richard Jarell

HISTORY OF BEERnBeer is made from grain or rootsnBarley wheat oats millet rice sorghum maize cassava and sweet potatoesnMost modern beer barleybasednLower in alcohol content than winenTypically in 5 alcvol range though can be nearly 10nEnzymes needed to break down starches HISTORY OF BEERnCan use enzymes in saliva chichanEnzymes from funginUsed to ferment cooked rice to make chiu or sakenBarley has its own enzymesnMalting process soak grain let it sprout grind themnThis is added to grain and then cooked HISTORY OF BEERnEgyptians and Mesopotamians making beer by at least 3000 BCEnNot favoured by Greeks or Romans but adopted in northern EuropenFlavourings added to beer spices herbs honeynHops become important by 1300s but not in England until 1600s HISTORY OF BEERnMost beer was alenUsed yeast that fermented on top and at warmer temperaturenGives cloudy strong shortlived brewnLager invented in Germany in early 1400snUsed different yeastferments at the bottomnKept cool with snow and allowed to brew for months HISTORY OF BEERnLighter longerlasting brewnBy 1840s spreads beyond GermanynWith special hops pilsener lagers popular in what is now Czech RepublicnBecomes the standard for US beers MAKING BEERnWater is important mineral contentnMalt the barley by soaking sproutingnMalting goes on longer if a darker beer is desirednMalt is kilned hotter and longer for Maillard reactions if dark brew is desirednMalt and water mash are cooked to create the wort MAKING BEERnThis breaks down the starches with enzyme activitynStarch turns into maltose sugar and dextrins which give body to beernManufacturers often add other grains maize rice and additive at this stagenIn new container wort is boiled with hopsnMore Maillard reactions may occur with maltose
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