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Environmental Science & Thinking

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Natural Science
NATS 1840
Carl Wolfe

NATS 1830 Environmental Science & Thinking Environment - Everything surrounding you, from the outside of your skin to the edge of the universe - All those part of the physical world that help to sustain life o If a part of the environment is under stress, then its ability to sustain life may be threatened. Environment Science: - The study of how the environment works, and of humanity’s impact upon it o It is A science o Interdisciplinary o Both theoretical and applied A Science  The systematic study of how and why nature works the way it does  Relies upon empirical methods to test possible explanations of observations  Seeks to uncover basic underlying principles so that predictions may be made A rational process drawing upon two forms of reasoning… Inductive Deductive - Synthesis - Logic - Creativity - Self-Consistency - Inspiration - Rigour - Imagination - Mathematics What Kind of Reasoning? Deductive Reasoning - All 1 year students drink during frosh week - All NATS 2849 Students are in 1st year - Therefore, all NATS 1840 students will have gotten drunk during frosh week Inductive Reasoning - Every university student I have known drank during frosh week - Therefore, all university students drink during frosh week Induction: Experience-based Reasoning - The mode of thinking used the formation of a hypothesis o General conclusion from limited number of observations o Synthesis of many observations o Bottom-up approach (starts with observations) Limited by finite number of observations – not logically valid - Inductive conclusions can only be proved in the sense that they are very likely, but not guaranteed, to be true Eg. All objects ever observed fall to the ground when dropped. Therefore, all objects fall to the ground -- But someday that might change -- - Induction is very different from deductive Deduction: Logical Reasoning - Crucial in analyzin
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