NATS 1860 Note 11
- We participate in two different experiments
o 5% each
o One visual adaptive experiment and one audio adaptive experiment.
o For each experiment, there will be a 2-page PDF that we must print
for correct/incorrect guesses.
- Midterm exam (15%, 30 multiple choice questions)
o NO MATH QUESTIONS.
o There will be a couple of qualitative questions
Which of stimulus conditions produce more of a neuro-
o We get 75 minutes to write it.
Weekly Lecture Organizations:
- First lecture 45-50 minutes
- There will be a 10-15 minute break.
- Second lecture will be 45-50 minutes
- Experiment for half the class (40 minutes)
o Weeks 2 and 3 will be the first experiment
o Weeks 4 and 5 will be the next experiment
Brain and Energy
- Only 2% of our body weight (~1.33 kg in the average person)
o It’s a 1/3 kg chunk of meat with the consistency of jellos
The jello structure is what causes concussions
- The brain uses 20% of body’s total energy
- It uses more energy than the muscles
- It’s because the brain uses billions of electrical signals that it needs so much
- Thinking is hard work
o The idea is that the more we think, the more energy it takes.
- You use all of your brain capacity every day (not just 50%), unless you’re in a
o Damage to any part of the brain will cause some form of deficit
If you have a wound at the back of your head won’t be able to
- Partial compensation is possible
o Some parts of the brain can take the job of the brain that is damage
Since you’re using fewer brain-cells, it isn’t as effective
- Some brain cells used more effectively than others
- Valid comparisons: athlete and couch potato use all of muscles
o The difference in terms of how you use your brain is dependent on
how much you use it for intellectual discussion. Goals of Neuroscience
- It’s to understand the causes of electrical activity in neurons
- To understand how actions and interactions among millions of neurons
o There are about 100 billion neurons within our brain.
o There are about 100 trillion interconnections among these neurons.
- Understand the basis of learning and memory
- To understand how the brain makes decisions
- To understand the specialization of different brain areas.
- To understand the causes of brain dysfunction
- To understand how and why drugs affect the brain
o They talk about how the cells intercommunicate.
Causation and Correlation
- Fact: people who use mouthwash everyday have a 25% higher cancer rate.
o Does mouthwash cause cancer?
o More people who use mouthwash are heavy smokers
It’s the heavy smokers who use mouthwash, and therefore get
There’s a correlation between the daily use of
mouthwash and smoking
o You can test facts with a controlled experiment
Brain Operations Past and Present
- Skull removals are very early operations that relieved pressure but
otherwise didn’t have any good effect.
- There was an experiment of placing electrodes on the surface of a human
brain during 1999
o You can go in, electrically record stimulations, find where the
problematic area is, and then remove the smallest piece of tissue
without harming major parts of the brain.
Major Historical Lesions
- Brain damage
o Two classic ones are Tan and Phineas Gage
The amazing thing about Gage is that he had his damage in
1848, never lost consciousness during the entire event
He lived for 13 more years after the event
He had normal senses and motor control
However, it totally changed his personality and social
He became a swearing person, things that most
o They were used as keys to localization Broca’s Area
- There was a lesion in Tan’s brain due to a tumor and the effect was that he
could not do speech.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
- Using modern technology you can us