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NATS 1860 Note 19.docx

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Natural Science
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NATS 1860
Keith Schneider

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NATS 1860 Note 19 Memory Lecture - Memory can influenced by our future experience o Sometimes there is a differentiation of perception o New material supersedes the old ones o The more similar the experiences, the more they interfere o Debate on whether the old trace is erased or competition from new trade during recall/recognition or by later rehearsal and retrieval - Memory can be distorted by how retrieval is done o Emotional content of the memory can affect the retrieval of memory Post Event-Biases - Leading questons can bias recall of the facts o How good are witnesses if there is a bias when you want to create your own causation o You can influence your memory simply by biasing.  The way you ask the question influences the answers – people integrate factors into memory that they forget the original source.  They don’t associate the question with the statement o People’s confidence in their memory is not correlated with that accuracy. Schemas - This is the knowledge of a typical situation, common event or object o These are socially shared - Schemas influence memory through encoding or learning of information - Information can be congruent with the schema, they are more likely to be recalled than congruent information - There was an experiment that showed people would remember likely things to be found, but not find specific deficiencies. - Do Schemas affect encoding or retrieval? o There is an experiment in which the subjects read a narrative of a house description o Subjects were in the role of a burglar or prospective home-buyer o Perspective influenced their recall (the mode they were in) o Therefore, schemas influence memory, not just learning. False Memories - Can be difficult to distinguish with things we imagine v. the actual event o The further in time, the further that is true o Children are more susceptible - There is a study where they are 3-6 year-old kids to think about real and fictious events o When they interviewed the kids 10 weeks later, 35% of them agreed that the fictitious event occurred. - Implications of false memories o Legal consequences occur in which there are leading questions and false suggestions. o These are also present in issues involving child abuse o This can cause unintentional fabrication and clinician bias Repressed memory - Memories or traumatic events could cause depression and anxiety - Memories become inaccessibly, or avoidance - Repressed memories may manifest themselves in disturbing dreams about fantasy, and dysfunctional behaviours - Most events are remembered incompletely or not at all - It is not clear that they are anxiety-provoking memories are less likely to be remembered. Thinking, Decisions, and Cognition Intelligence: - Human intelligence is the ability to acquire, recall, and use knowledge to understand concrete and abstract concepts and the relationship amongst objects and ideas, and to use knowledge in a meaningful way. o This is only cause the terms themselves need to be defined o In humans, intelligence has something to do with the speed and efficiency with which these various functions occur - It is also shown as the ability to attain goals in the face of obstacles by means of decisions based on rational rules - Intelligence in action: o There is intelligence in actions (specifying a goal) o You accept the action - What would be required of a computer to act (humanly intelligent) o Pattern classification (categorization) o Adaptive behaviour modification (learning) o Deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning o The development and use of conceptual models o Understanding. - It can be information processing: o Information is seen from the external world that is perceived or input o The information is stored o The information is transformed - Then the output is made - General knowledge – every person has an enormous among of knowledge about the word – how things work o General knowledge the general knowledge is essential for normal interactions between people - General Intelligence (G) o There are various intellectual competencies: linguistic, math/logic, musical, spatial, body/kinesthetic, interpersonal/intrapersonal o Spearman argued that correlations among the different scales means that intelligence is a unitary construct o People are better at certain things an others - Analytic v practical intelligence o Intelligence tests are good predictors of academic performance, but only moderate predictor of job performance (though still one of the best predictors:0 o An academic problem where aptitude is important is that there has to be complete information, single correct answer and single method - Practical problems (knowledge is important) – require problem recognition and formulate seeking, posses multiple solutions and allow multiple methods - Brain v Machine - Brains are good at making judgments, inferences, and generalizations o They are prone to error, but they can solve may problems that are presently untenable with machines  (Face recognition, speech, language, etc.) o Brains and machines can both solve the same tasks as the other, only they are much slower tasks, which they are not specialized. - Algorithms v heuristics o Algorithm: step by step procedure that guarantees a solution to a given problem o Heuristics: sets of rules or strategies that work most of the time - Artificial Intelligence o Can human intelligence be simulated on a machine? o Is human intelligence dependent on some property of the human brain, or is the brain just one implementation of intelligence - Emergent intelligent o An emergent property is one that arises through the collective activity of a number of units that do not themselves have that property o Can a collection of non-intelligence items interact to produce a single intelligent o Is there something about a neuron’s behaviour that cannot be reproduced by a non-organic machine  There is the human brain project in Switzerland where they were try to simulate the brain - Forms of Artificial Intelligence o Weak AI: suitably programmed machines can simulate human cognition  Computer can simulate a mind o Strong AI: suitably programmed machines are capable of cognitive mental states  Computer is or can be a mind - Searle’s Chinese Room Argument o There is a man who doesn’t understand Chinese is put into a room, in which he is given a paper with Chinese symbols is slipped under the door o The man has a long list of instructions about what to get to draw in response to the Chinese o Simply because he can change the notes of paper, does he understand Chinese? o The Systems reply: the man doesn’t understand Chinese, but is part of a system that does. o What if the man memorizes the instructions and can perform Chinese translation in real time? - Meaning and understanding o Understanding is not the same as symbol manipulation or computation, but some meaning must be attached to those symbols o The main in the Chinese Room doesn’t manipulate symbols o Therefore, the computer can never understand symbols - Expert system: o Record the judgments of experts as they make decisions in different situations.  Doctors making medical diagnosis given a list of symptoms o Train a computer program to learn these judgments o This system can outperform humans because it combines many human decisions Concepts and Categories - A concept is a representation, and a category is referred to by representations - Concepts classify, understand, predict, reason and help us communicate - Classical Model of Concepts (Aristotle) o We can define a concept with a definition of necessary and sufficient conditions:  A circle is a locus of all points equidistant from a center point
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