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NATS 1860A Note 3

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1860
Keith Schneider

NATS 1860 Note 3 Keywords: - Bell-Magendie Law - Phrenology: - Flourens: - Paul Broca: - Electrophysiology: - Cytoarchitectonics: - Neuron doctrine: - Golgi: Thomas Willis (17 century) - His book Cerebri anatome was very influential o Mapped higher functions: located memory Jean-Cesar Le Gallois (18 -19 century) The respiratory center - Every time a portion of the brain or spinal cord is destroyed, a function is stopped - He wanted to know which section was responsible for what Bell and Magendie (18 -19 century)h - Identification of separate sensory and motor nerve roots in the spinal cord - Use of lesions and stimulation - Bell discovered the motor roots first buy only published a pamphlet - Magendie discovered the sensory function of the posterior roots - This is showing us that the nervous system itself can be localized (some can do what others can’t) - The law: the separation of the motor and sensory roots - Bell was unwilling to do vivisection: he couldn’t work on sensory functions. - Stimulation: crude form of electricity; electrode that will poke or prod a particular area: what happens when I poke/cut it? Phrenology: - Franz Gall and Johann Spurzeim (18 to 19 century)h o Where there is variation in function, there must be variation in controlling structures. o Form of body language in the sense of looking at someone’s external features to figure out inside - Bumps and depressions on skulls are thought to be indications of brain development - Specific regions on the brain connected to specific functions “organs of the mind” - Gall examined people with extreme qualities and collected skulls to determine the map - Disputes and variations in the nature of the maps and precisions of borders by other phrenologists - Elements of Phrenology (1824) by Charles Caldwell and Consti
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