NATS 1860 Note 4
- Hitzig 1870 applied electric currents to stimulate brains and dogs
- Distinctive movements when particular sites stimulated
- Ablation to confirm loss of movement in these areas
- Confirmed ideas of Jackson on epilepsy and hemiplegia
- 19 century physics findings in being able to use electricity for experiments:
- Rafferty had absence that ate away on her bone, live testing
- Lesions to regions of damage are important to localization (confirms)
- Ferrier writes a book, anytime a book is accepted you know it will influence
the direction that research goes on.
o Goltz said no specific defect when sensory and motor areas removed
Live dog still had functions
Electrophysiology of Brain
- Catton (18 -19 century) records spontaneous electrical currents from
o A detector that observed the reaction the brain.
- Fine anatomy of cortex. Depends on technology:
- Cells are integral units and are made up of different part in a cell.
- The real question is how the dendrites are separated from the dendrites. Fun.
- Separate entities, don’t depend on anything to live.
o Staining, silver staining,
Neural Reticulum theory:
- Large web that is connected through the axons and of the dendrites. This
challenges the localization theory
- Refers to holism: the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
o When damaging parts of the brain, not taking into consideration the
state of the brain/body.
- Animals relearn after they have brain damage.
Keywords: - Clay Tablets
- Susruta couching
- Plato’s theory of vision
- Galen’s theory of vision
- Duplicity theory
- High incidence of eye problems, including infectious trachoma
- Prayers, and incantations to drive away spirits
- Ebers papyrus (copied before 16 century BCE)
o Different ointments containing copper, sulfur, beef liver (vitamin A)
and other anti-infectious substances.
- Hammurabi’s code on clay tablet
- Pillars in front of temples in 18 century BCE
- Susruta Samhita (16 -11 century BCE)
- Couching performs on cataracts
- Method was brought to Greece
- Investigated the parts of the eye and the parts of the eye and the optic nerve
(thought to be hollow)
- Believed that sight had to do with beams of light
o From eye to object
- Plato’s Timaeus
o Non-burning fire from the eyes unites with rays from sun or other
o Creates “body of vision” which is in contact with the soul, enabling
o Closing the eyes prevents fire from leaving the eyes (causing the
- Alcmaeon identified hollow tubes
- Hippocrates explored the anatomy of the eyes: 3 tunics
o Uveal tunic
- Galen: Localized functions in the ventri