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NATS 1860A Note 4

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Natural Science
NATS 1860
Keith Schneider

NATS 1860 Note 4 Motor cortex - Hitzig 1870 applied electric currents to stimulate brains and dogs - Distinctive movements when particular sites stimulated - Ablation to confirm loss of movement in these areas - Confirmed ideas of Jackson on epilepsy and hemiplegia - 19 century physics findings in being able to use electricity for experiments: phrenology - Rafferty had absence that ate away on her bone, live testing - Lesions to regions of damage are important to localization (confirms) - Ferrier writes a book, anytime a book is accepted you know it will influence the direction that research goes on. o Goltz said no specific defect when sensory and motor areas removed in fog  Live dog still had functions Electrophysiology of Brain - Catton (18 -19 century) records spontaneous electrical currents from animal brains o A detector that observed the reaction the brain. Cytoarchitectonics - Fine anatomy of cortex. Depends on technology: Cell Theory: - Cells are integral units and are made up of different part in a cell. - The real question is how the dendrites are separated from the dendrites. Fun. Neuron Docrtine: - Separate entities, don’t depend on anything to live. o Staining, silver staining, Neural Reticulum theory: - Large web that is connected through the axons and of the dendrites. This challenges the localization theory Gestalt movement: - Refers to holism: the whole is more than the sum of its parts. o When damaging parts of the brain, not taking into consideration the state of the brain/body. Other debates - Animals relearn after they have brain damage. Vision Keywords: - Clay Tablets - Susruta couching - Plato’s theory of vision - Galen’s theory of vision - Chiasma - Is-Haq - Alhazen - Microscopy - Duplicity theory Egypt - High incidence of eye problems, including infectious trachoma - Prayers, and incantations to drive away spirits th - Ebers papyrus (copied before 16 century BCE) o Different ointments containing copper, sulfur, beef liver (vitamin A) and other anti-infectious substances. Babylon - Hammurabi’s code on clay tablet th - Pillars in front of temples in 18 century BCE India - Susruta Samhita (16 -11 century BCE) - Couching performs on cataracts - Method was brought to Greece Greeks - Investigated the parts of the eye and the parts of the eye and the optic nerve (thought to be hollow) - Believed that sight had to do with beams of light o From eye to object - Plato’s Timaeus o Non-burning fire from the eyes unites with rays from sun or other light source o Creates “body of vision” which is in contact with the soul, enabling sight o Closing the eyes prevents fire from leaving the eyes (causing the dream) - Alcmaeon identified hollow tubes - Hippocrates explored the anatomy of the eyes: 3 tunics o Sclera o Uveal tunic o Retina - Galen: Localized functions in the ventri
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