NATS 1860 Note 7
Sleep and Emotion
- Depth of sleep curve
- Maria Manasseina
- Charles Bell
- Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals (Darwin’s book)
Sleep in Aristotle’s worldview
- Sleep and wakefulness associated with the heart
- Sleep from inhibition of sense perception (plants do not sleep – only animals
- Heat of the body pushes fumes from food to the brain, where they collect and
- Descended vapours cool the heart, resulting in inhibition of sense perception
- Greeks would use observation and reasoning
o We still like their research method.
- If you’re asleep you can’t perceive your physical environment.
- Centered on the idea of food and nutrition.
o If you eat a meal, you feel sleepy (observation and reasoning)
o Heat of the body pushes fumes to the brain where they collect. The
vapours cool the heart.
o Heat creates the vitality.
- Sense perception is the moving of the soul through the body.
- The motion of the heart allows you to perceive the environment around you.
- Secondary readings and sources about the original (primary sources)
Kohlschutter and curve of depth of Sleep
- Sensitivity to sensory stimulation at various 30 or 60 minute intervals after
- Measured sensitivity to the sound of a pendular hammer banging on
- Gradually increased loudness (height of hammer release) to awakening point
- Subject’s experience of awakening indicated by behaviours and pre-arranged
- Found that sleep deepens in the first hour, as an intense sound is required for
- Between 1 and 3 hours, intensity to awake decreases
- Curve is smooth- Kohlschutter eliminated 50% of his data points for an
“idealized sleep curve”
o This was done in order to focus on the “signal and noise”
o To show exactly which results he wanted to focus on. That’s the way that nature “ought” to be.
o This is what data should be. Not just “noise”
Either someone is too sensitive, or not sensitive enough.
- We have to be attentive to the 19 century when scientists use charts to
record things mechanically through instruments. What kind of information
do they read on it? What do they like to see? Are they actually interested in
what’s going on in the noises: (4 stages of sleep)
o Data changes over time when we find out different materials.
Sleep Deprivation in Animals: Maria Manasseina (19 -20 ) th th
- One of the only few Russian women trained as physicians
- Did ground-breaking research demonstrating the chemistry of fermentation
- Wrote Sleep, It’s physiology, pathology, hygiene and Psychology
- First studies on sleep deprivation in animals – 1894
- Kept 10 puppies awake 4-5 days
- Noted cerebral hemorrhages
- Experiment ended with death of puppies despite their being fed
- She didn’t receive a Nobel Prize because she was a woman. Boohoo.
- The idea of physiology and pathology works together where if there’s a
sickness, we need to find where it is in the body/ brain.
- She then dissected the puppies and found out that depriving them of sleep
caused lesions in their brain.
Sleep Deprivation in Animals: Henri Pieron, (19 -20 ) th th
- Sleep deprivation in dogs
- Hyperirritability, muscular weakness
- Degeneration in nervous system
- Cell Shrinkage in the brain
o Most noticeable in prefrontal cortex
- A single long sleep session restored them to health.
- Problem – dogs were kept awake by continuous activity.
o Why is this a problem for the study
Sleep Deprivation in Humans: Patrick and Gilbert
- It was done in university of Iowa
o This was really early for human test subjects
o First experiments on sleep deprivation in humans in 19 th
o Involved some of the first psychologists (before this physiologists and
doctors alone studied sleep)
o Physiological and psychological effects were observed
o Used Kohlschutter’s depth of sleep curve to assess recovery.
How deep the sleep was?
They got a curve that was for a longer period of time.
- Kept subjects awake 90 hours
- Physiological, psychological and biochemical tests o Temperature, pulse, body weight, grip and pull strength, reaction,
cognition, memory, pain sensitivity, etc.
- 3 subjects: Gilbert was a subject and it was widely read
o Consistent impairment of cognition (memorization of numbers)
o Decline in reaction times
o Decreased sensitivity to pain
o Weight gain during loss
o Weight loss during recovery
o Increase in visual acuity
o Some differences between subje