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NATS 1860 Note 8

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Natural Science
NATS 1860
Keith Schneider

NATS 1860 Note 8 Ancient theories of Emotion - Democritus o Liver – desire, heart – anger, head – reason - Plato o Liver = appetitive aspects of soul o Heart = spirited aspects of soul o Head = rational aspects of soul - Aristotle o Passions = appetite, anger, fear, confidence, envy , joy, love, hatred, longing, emulation, pity, pleasure and pain in general o Animals and humans share some of the passions o Emotions involve intellect o Humans can influence their emotions o Heart is influential in emotional expression - Galen o Liver = desire, Heart = temperature and vitality, Brain = intellect - Notice how there is an interactive between holistic medicine and neuroscience. - Different levels of emotion are mirrored in the brain - Human beings are unique, in the sense of our physiology. o We’re capable of reflecting on our emotional experience: we know that we feel something th th Francois-Xavier Bichat (18 -19 ) - 1805 theory of organic and inorganic lif - Organic life: o Governed by asymmetrical organs o Associated with “passions” o Metabolic functions o Heart is the center - Animal life: o Governed by symmetrical organs (eyes, ears, limbs…) o Habit and memory o Ruled by will and intellect o Higher functions - Different illness ascribed to the two systems Charles Bell (18 -19 ) th - 1806 Essays on the Anatomy of Expression in Painting - Dissection and observation of muscles of the face used in facial expression - His illustrations were used by Darwin - Bell-Magendie Law – motor and sensory nerve roots - Bell’s palsy - If you lose the capability of smiling, then you cannot communicate to other people that you’re feeling a certain way. o This way we can express how we can survive o It’s a logical process  If someone rolls his or her eyes, we know why. - th Guillaume Duchenne de Bologne (19 ) - Interested in facial muscles – read Bell’s work - 1850 used electricity to stimulate specific muscles - 1862 Mecanisme de la Physionomie Humaine - First to use clinical photography - Specific muscles identified for specific expressions - Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy - A scientific approach that instead others, like Darwin Charles Darwin (19 ) th - 1872 Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals - Both animals and humans share emotions - Praise for Bell and Duchenne - Emotions are characteristic of species – are inherited - Emotions are adaptive (widening eyes – dilation of the pupils; snarling – biting, causing fear in an opponent) - Similarity in human expressions suggests the were attributes of a common ancestor - Emotions are innate, not learned (studied his infant son) - He says you don’t need to turn to an explanation of a creator for the complexity of life. He’s extending his views to emotion - Qualities of species are things that have been developed through Natural Selection - There’s a clear indication of emotion how we feel, however as we grow older we gain more master in displaying our emotions. Paul Ekman (20 ) th - Wanted to find a culture that wouldn’t focus on media of culture - Asked whether emotions are learned or innate - Did research in 1967 with New Guineans who had never seen media - Discovered 6 shared emotions - Inspiration for TV show Lie to Me - Works with law enforcement, and with the Dalai Lama - This is done in order to detect lying; o He would put them in a room, were there is money and asks them to steal and not steal. The ability to find micro-expressions is easy to detect lying. Keywords: - Id: Involved in the psychoanalytic theories of human motivations and feelings, it’s also inspired by localization theories in neuroscience. Look for how Freud figures in, even though psychoanalytic theory doesn’t directly connect to neurological. He was a neurologist before a psychologist. - Phineas Gage: Localization and personality - James-Lange Theory: A theory of psychology as a disciple, about how emotion is originating in the unconscious physical experience. It came to be discredited. Where in the body is emotion arising? What sorts of neurological events are occurring - Walter Cannon: The guy who’s responsible for fight or flight response, he figures prominently in our understanding of stress. The idea is that our
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