NATS 1860 Note 9
James – Lange theory 19 -20th
- Sensation triggers body changes, which leads to emotion
o We run from a bear, then feel fear
- Reversed idea that emotions caused body changes, as changes come first in
- We feel sorry because we cry and angry because we strike = James
- Emotion is our mind’s perception of our physiological state
o Different for each emotion
- Based on introspection and data from clinical cases.
- Walter Cannon (19 -20 ) th
o paralyzed individual feel the full range of emotions
o Adrenalin injections cause bodily changes that are not associated with
o Pathological laughing and crying (due to disease) are not associated
with corresponding emotion
o The behavioral act of emotion isn’t necessarily connected with what
o He developed the fight or flight response
In our modern society we’re faced with the stressful activities:
Work, Job; Life sucks.
Triggers surround us.
Autonomic Nervous system
- The organs we don’t have control over are connected with the autonomic
- Parasympathetic slows heart, uses muscles, etc.
o Nerves have to activate muscles so they contract or release.
o These aspects aren’t under our conscious control.
- Walter Cannon
o Experiments on the autonomic nervous system (sensory and motor
nerves affecting organs)
o Increased activity of sympathetic system with emotional excitement
o Fight or flight response – sympathetic changes
Release of adrenalin, more blood to skeletal muscles, increase
in blood pressure
o Our emotions can interact with our body in complex ways and affect
organs that we have no control over.
o The focus of attention in autonomic studies focuses on the
It’s linked to some emotional states.
o It’s in the lower part of the brain. It’s above the Pons and the Medulla
of the brainstem o Animals exhibit “rage” after the cerebral cortex is removed or
disconnected (therefore not needed for emotion)
o Electrical stimulation of hypothalamus (Karplus and Kreidl) causes
o In the cortex there are regions that process emotions, and then bring
it into a physiological state.
o Rage associated with increased blood sugar and adrenaline
Associated with the fight or flight reflex, being prepared
o Damage to sympathetic nervous system or posterior hypothalamus
results in lack of this response
This suggests that that part of the brain
Role of the Hypothalamus
- Damage to posterior hypothalamus
o Emotional apathy
o Elimination of rage response
o Lower blood pressure
o Reduced heart rate
- Stimulate hypothalamus electrically
o Reversed effect
Upper brainstem and cortex
- Clinical observations – Wilson
o 1924, 1929 patients who have loss of voluntary control of facial
muscles are still able to smile when feeling happy, frown when sad
o Patients under anesthetic (loss of voluntary control) unconsciously
produce expressions of emotion (laughing, singing, or weeping)
o This goes to Darwin, saying how emotions can be expressed because
there is more ability to process experience and control emotion.
When going to less complex brains, you are closer to an
instantaneous reaction to the environment without processing.
- Idea that the cortex controls expression of emotion that comes from upper
- Recall John Hughlings Jackson’s proposal
o People who have lesions in the frontal lobes lack the ability to process
o Also, Phineas Gage
- Named by Broca in 19
o Found in all mammals (well developed in those that rely on the sense
- James Papez 20 th
o Named brain structures that corresponded to limbic node in emotion
and emotional expression
Hippocampus affected by rabies, whose victims experience
terror, rage and anxiety. The triune brain model Paul Maclean (20 -21 ) th st
- Reptilian or primitive brain
o Brain stem, instincts and aggression
o Self preservation
- Limbic intermediate brain
o Simple feelings
o Reproductive behaviour
o Higher thoughts, reason
o Problem solving
- Level of communication between “brains” – recall Freud
o This brings reasoning and judgment, the Neocortex can’t be involved
unless it’s getting signals from the reptilian brain.
- There is localization of emotion, discriminates against different kinds of
emotion, and is paralleled with Freudian theories.
o There is two different perspectives between the human experie