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NATS 1860 Note 9

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Natural Science
NATS 1860
Keith Schneider

NATS 1860 Note 9 James – Lange theory 19 -20th - Sensation triggers body changes, which leads to emotion o We run from a bear, then feel fear - Reversed idea that emotions caused body changes, as changes come first in this theory - We feel sorry because we cry and angry because we strike = James - Emotion is our mind’s perception of our physiological state o Different for each emotion - Based on introspection and data from clinical cases. - Walter Cannon (19 -20 ) th o paralyzed individual feel the full range of emotions o Adrenalin injections cause bodily changes that are not associated with emotion o Pathological laughing and crying (due to disease) are not associated with corresponding emotion o The behavioral act of emotion isn’t necessarily connected with what we’re feeling. o He developed the fight or flight response  In our modern society we’re faced with the stressful activities:  Work, Job; Life sucks.  Triggers surround us. Autonomic Nervous system - The organs we don’t have control over are connected with the autonomic nervous system - Parasympathetic slows heart, uses muscles, etc. o Nerves have to activate muscles so they contract or release. o These aspects aren’t under our conscious control. - Walter Cannon o Experiments on the autonomic nervous system (sensory and motor nerves affecting organs) o Increased activity of sympathetic system with emotional excitement o Fight or flight response – sympathetic changes  Release of adrenalin, more blood to skeletal muscles, increase in blood pressure o Our emotions can interact with our body in complex ways and affect organs that we have no control over. - Brainstem o The focus of attention in autonomic studies focuses on the hypothalamus.  It’s linked to some emotional states. o It’s in the lower part of the brain. It’s above the Pons and the Medulla of the brainstem o Animals exhibit “rage” after the cerebral cortex is removed or disconnected (therefore not needed for emotion) o Electrical stimulation of hypothalamus (Karplus and Kreidl) causes sympathetic responses o In the cortex there are regions that process emotions, and then bring it into a physiological state. o Rage associated with increased blood sugar and adrenaline  Associated with the fight or flight reflex, being prepared o Damage to sympathetic nervous system or posterior hypothalamus results in lack of this response  This suggests that that part of the brain Role of the Hypothalamus - Damage to posterior hypothalamus o Emotional apathy o Elimination of rage response o Lower blood pressure o Reduced heart rate - Stimulate hypothalamus electrically o Reversed effect Upper brainstem and cortex - Clinical observations – Wilson o 1924, 1929 patients who have loss of voluntary control of facial muscles are still able to smile when feeling happy, frown when sad o Patients under anesthetic (loss of voluntary control) unconsciously produce expressions of emotion (laughing, singing, or weeping) o This goes to Darwin, saying how emotions can be expressed because there is more ability to process experience and control emotion.  When going to less complex brains, you are closer to an instantaneous reaction to the environment without processing. - Idea that the cortex controls expression of emotion that comes from upper brainstem (diencephalon) - Recall John Hughlings Jackson’s proposal o People who have lesions in the frontal lobes lack the ability to process o Also, Phineas Gage Limbic Lobe th - Named by Broca in 19 o Found in all mammals (well developed in those that rely on the sense of smell) - James Papez 20 th o Named brain structures that corresponded to limbic node in emotion and emotional expression  Hippocampus affected by rabies, whose victims experience terror, rage and anxiety. The triune brain model Paul Maclean (20 -21 ) th st - Reptilian or primitive brain o Brain stem, instincts and aggression o Self preservation - Limbic intermediate brain o Simple feelings o Emotions o Reproductive behaviour - Neocortex o Higher thoughts, reason o Problem solving - Level of communication between “brains” – recall Freud o This brings reasoning and judgment, the Neocortex can’t be involved unless it’s getting signals from the reptilian brain. - There is localization of emotion, discriminates against different kinds of emotion, and is paralleled with Freudian theories. o There is two different perspectives between the human experie
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