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Lecture 3

NURS 3524 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Social Environment, Menstruation, Tanner Scale


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS 3524
Professor
Mavoy Bertram
Lecture
3

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NURS 3524 wk 3
NURS 3524: Paediatrics
Growth and Development: Preschoolers, School-agers and Adolescents
Mavoy Bertram
September 25, 2014
Preschooler: 4 to 5 years
Biologic Development
Weight gain of 2-3 kg/year
Height increases 6.5 - 9 cm
Systems are generally well developed and can cope with moderate stress
Motor Development
Refining of gross & fine motor skills:
Riding a tricycle, then bicycle
Jumping to skipping
Catching a ball is more consistent
Drawing becomes more refined
Psychosocial Development
Erikson:
Developing a sense of initiative
Initiative vs guilt
Development of superego/conscience
Appreciative of right vs wrong
Cognitive Development
Piaget:
Although preoperational - this stage highlights the beginning of intuitive thought
Time is abstract
Magical thinking
Social Development
Separation-individuation process
Increase in social interaction
Play is more social, imaginative, imitative, dramatic, associative play
Preschool & kindergarten experience
Development of Body Image
Increasing comprehension of “desirable” appearances
Awareness of racial identity, differences in appearances, and biases
Poorly defined body boundaries
Development of Sexuality
Child forms strong attachment to opposite sex parent while identifying with same-sex parent
Questions arise about sexual reproduction
Coping with Development…
Aggression
Speech Problems
Stress
Fears
Caring for the Preschooler
Nutrition
90 kcal/kg
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NURS 3524 wk 3
Fluid requirement approximately 100 ml/kg daily
Sleep & Activity
Dental Health
Injury Prevention
Nursing Interventions
Encourage parents involvement in the care of their child
Give clear explanations about procedures and illnesses to the child
School-age:
6 to 12 years
Biologic Development
Weight gain is slower, 2-3 kg/year
Height increases by about 5 cm/year
Changes in dentition
Pubescent changes commence
Physical maturity may not necessarily correlate with their emotional & social maturity
Psychosocial Development
Erikson:
Industry vs inferiority
Concepts of success and failure become important
Growing sense of independence
Peer approval is strong motivator
Cognitive Development
Piaget:
Concrete Operational – period of reasoning & rational thinking
Use thought processes to experience events and actions
Able to make judgments based on reason; “conceptual thinking”
Social Development
Importance of peers
Peer pressures
Social clubs, groups
Efficient language skills
Sexuality & Body Image
Changes in secondary sex characteristics
Sex roles influenced by peer relationships
Parental attitudes toward sex
Consider the use of terminology
Need for education
Caring for the School-age Child
Nutrition
Sleep & Rest
Physical Activity & Exercise
Dental Health
Injury Prevention
Nursing Interventions
Provide for privacy and modesty
Explain treatments and procedures clearly
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