ORGS 1000 Lecture 5: Chapter 5- Stress

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Jessica Gahtan
Chapter 5: Stress
Stress
Psychological response to demands when there’s something at stake for the individual
and when coping with these demands would exceed the individual’s
capacity/resources.
Stressor
Demand that causes the stress response
Strains
Negative consequences of the stress response
Why are some more stressed than others?
Transactional theory of stress
Explains how stressful demands are perceived and appraised, as well as how people
respond to the perceptions of appraisals.
When people first encounter stressors, process of primary appraisal is
triggered
Primary appraisal
Evaluation of whether a demand is stressful and, if it is, the implications of the stressor
in terms of personal goals and well being
Types of stressors
Hindrance stressors
Tend to be appraised as thwarting progress towards growth and achievement; trigger
negative emotions
Challenge stressors
Appraised as opportunities for growth and achievement; trigger positive emotions
Work Hindrance stressors
Role conflict
Others’ having differing expectations of what an individual needs to do in a role (e.g.
call center operator)
Role ambiguity
Lack of direction and information about what needs to be done in a role
Role overload
So many roles that they can’t app be performed effectively
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Jessica Gahtan
Daily hassles
Minor day-to-day demands that interfere with work accomplishment
Work challenge stressors
Time pressure
Amount of time given to do something isn’t enough
Work complexity
Degree that work requirements exceed a person’s capacities
Work responsibility
Number and importance of the obligations that an employee has to others
- Level of responsibility is higher when the number, scope and importance of
the obligations in that job
Non-work hindrance stressors
- Stressful demands outside of work have implications for managing behavior
in organizations
- Stressors experienced outside of work have spill over effects
- Work-family conflict (=a form of role conflict in which the demands of a work
role hinder the fulfillment of the demands in a family role (or vice versa)
- Negative life event (=events such as a divorce or death of a family member
that tend to be appraised as a hindrance)
- Financial uncertainty (= uncertainties with regard to the potential for loss of
livelihood, savings or the ability to pay expenses)
oRelevant during recessions/ economic downturns
Non-work challenge stressors
- Family time demands- amount of time committed to fulfilling family
responsibilities
oTravelling, attending social events and organized activities, hosting
parties and planning and making home improvements
- Personal development- participation in activities outside of work that foster
growth and learning
- Positive life events- events such as marriage or the birth of a child that rend
to be appraised as a challenge
How do people cope with stressors?
Secondary appraisal
When people determine how to cope with the various stressors they face
Coping
Behaviors and thoughts used to manage stressful demands and the emotions
associated with the stressful demands
- 4 categories
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