ORGS 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Absenteeism, Transactional Leadership, Work Unit

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Chapter 12: Leadership Styles and
Behaviors
Leadership Styles and Behaviors
Leadership
The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal
achievement
The direction can affect the followers’ interpretation of events, organization
of their work activities, their commitment to key goals, relationships with
other followers and their access to cooperation and support from other work
units
There are different ways to judge leaders’ effectiveness
oObjective evaluations of unit performance
Like profit margins, market share, sales, return on investment,
productivity, quality, costs in relation to budgeted
expenditures etc.
oSubjective measures
oFollowers centered
Indices like absenteeism, retention of talented employees,
grievances filed, requests for transfer etc.
Can be complemented by employee surveys that assess
the perceived performance of the leader, perceived
respect and legitimacy of the leader and employee
commitment, satisfaction and psychological well being
Leader-member exchange theory
A theory describing how leader-member relationships develop over time on a dyadic
basis (=through interactions)
Explains why those differences exist
Argues that relationships are typically marked by a rule taking phase and
sometimes supplemented by role making
Role taking phase
The phase in a leader-follower relationship when a leader provides an employee with
job expectations and the follower tries to meet those expectations
Role Making
The phase in a leader- follower relationship when a follower voices his or her own
expectations for the relationship, resulting in a free-flowing exchange of opportunities
and resources for activities and effort
Over time, 2 kinds of leader-member dyad (=groups) may emerge:
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oHigh-quality exchange
Frequent one-on-one exchanges of information between the
leader and member, mutual influence, support and attention
Those dyads form the leader’s ‘in-group’
Characterized by high levels of communication, mutual trust,
respect and obligation
oLow-quality exchange
Limited exchange of information, influence, latitude, support
and attention
They form the leader’s ‘out-group’
Characterized by lower levels of communication, trust, respect
and obligation
Employees who are more competent, likeable, and similar to the leader in
personality will be more likely to end up in the leader’s in-group
oHave a greater impact than age, gender or racial similarity
Employees who have higher-quality-exchange relationships are more likely
to exhibit citizenship behaviors
Why are some leaders more effective than others?
Leader effectiveness
The degree to which the leader’s actions result in the achievement of the unit’s goals,
the continued commitment of the unit’s employees, and the development of mutual
trust, respect and obligation in leader-member dyads
Early research of what this was the cause of focused on physical features
whereas subsequent research focused more on personality and ability
There is no generalizable profile of effective leaders from a trait perspective
Traits are more predictive of who becomes a leader (leader emergence)
Leader emergence
The process of becoming a leader in the first place
Traits don’t necessarily make the person good as a leader, sometimes there’s
only a low correlation between the two.
Leader Decision-making styles
Most important is whether the leader involves others in decisions
Defining the styles
Autocratic style
A leadership style where the leader makes the decision alone without asking for
opinions or suggestions of the employees in the work unit
E.g. when a professor makes decisions about what content will be covered
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Consultative style
A leadership style in which the leader presents the problem to employees asking for
their options and suggestions before ultimately making the decision his or herself
While employees have a say, the leader ultimately has the authority
Facilitative style
A leadership style in which the leader presents the problem to a group of employees
and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure his or her own opinions receives more
weight than anyone else’s
Delegative style
A leadership style where the leader gives the employee the responsibility for making
decisions within some set of specified boundary conditions
Leader plays no role without being asked
Though he or she may offer encouragement and provide necessary resources
behind the scenes
When are the styles most effective
Depends on the quality of the resulting decision
Making the correct decision is the ultimate means of judging the leader
Employees are more likely to commit if they’re part of the decision process
oIt increases their job satisfaction
Time-driven model of leadership
A model that suggests that seven factors (including: the importance of the decision,
the expertise of the leader, and the competence of the followers) combine to make
some decision-making styles more effective than others in a given situation
1. Decision significance
2. Importance of commitment
3. Leader expertise
4. Likelihood of commitment
5. Shared objectives
6. Employee expertise
7. Teamwork skills
Autocratic - decisions that are insignificant or decisions for which employee
commitment is unimportant
oExcept when the leader has a lot of expertise and is trusted
oIn this kind of situation, should result in an accurate decision that
makes the most effective use of employees’ time
Delagative- circumstances when employees have strong teamwork skills and
aren’t likely to commit to just whatever the leader decides
Deciding between the other 2 styles requires a consideration of all 7 factors
Managers tend to overuse autocratic decision making
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