PHIL 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Classical Liberalism, Wage Labour, Individualism

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The state of nature
how people lived before they agreed to from state
Nature has made man equal in body and mind
If two men desire the same thing they become enemies
continual fear or death, no culture, no knowledge, no sustainability
Nothing can be unjust, he can get therefore he can keep it
This agreement of state is deemed the Leviathan which symbolizes fearsome
Thomas Hobbes
For the sake of peace we have agreed to turn over our right to defend ourselves
to the state ( a political power that we create)
Everyone is always at war without this and life is short, poor and brutal
John Locke
Why do people unite in a commonwealth?
1. For the preservation of their property
2. For the benefits of having an impartial judge
3. For the benefit of having the sentences enforced by power
We have inherent rights that cannot be transferred, life, property
If the government violates the rights of citizens it is no longer legitimate
Classical liberalism. Capitalism.
Liberalism = liberty and rights of individuals against encroachments by the state
small government
the protection of society and free economic systems from coercion and fraud
Values : freedom (speech, the press, assembly etc…) Individualism, maturity
How to best organize society
Everyone should be free to pursue self-interest
Everyone should have the right to private property
Everyone will have different talents, abilities, intelligence level, creativity
Everyone should be free to mix their abilities with their means of production to
produce goods or services
Everyone should be free to engage in voluntary exchange
Capitalism = based on self-interest and competition in which the means of production
and distribution are privately owned and operated within a free market society
Private ownership of the means of production
The use of wage labour
Exchange on a free market for profit
Goal is maximization of profit
it is unjust because it allows for and even encourages inequalities in society
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