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Philosophy Tutorial September 18.doc

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York University
PHIL 1000

Philosophy Tutorial Wed September 18,13 Deductive Argument - certain conclusion: valid + true premises = certainty Inductive Argument - Probability: Some information missing= No certainty Valid Argument - Conclusion follows Premise's Sound Argument- Premises must be true Persuasive: Sympathize> convinced Types of Arguments: Modus Ponens: • Example: if today is Wednesday (A), then I'll be teaching at York (B) • Today is Wednesday, therefore I'm teaching at York - This is a valid argument but it is not sound argument because 1) what if today is not Wednesday 2) What if you get sick, then you won't be teaching that day 3) you won't be teaching on a Wednesday the rest of your life. Modus Tonans: - If p>Q-q /-p • Example: The 8-ball being sunk (P) implies it's the end of a game of pool (Q). If it's' not the end of the game yet (-Q) Then the 8-ball is not sunk (-P) *Definition of TOTALOGY is always sound argument* Philosophy Tutorial Wed September 25, 13 Socrates Apology The 2 arguments he had and was charged with 1. Made up his own gods • He rejected Athenian gods • He treated this as a business man, riddle, and politician • He wanted to see if there was someone smarter than him - He argued that he respected the gods - Socrates knew he didn't have the answers and knew that there was people around him that he could learn from 2. Corrupting the youth • He never accepted money for wisdom • He denies that he was a teacher - He believed that truth is worth dying for - He valued truth, justification, and since his life is
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