Introduction to Philosophy II
The professor has difficulties in distinguishing motive and intention.
The Second Criticism
“Human happiness is unattainable,” no matter how hard we try in terms of working with the
consequences of actions we will still never attain it. Of course, the issue is to know what is happiness.
If by happiness we mean constant euphoria, well then of course it is unattainable. This, however, is a
strawman argument. Mill is proposing this form of happiness; instead
Utility is mainly used in the private life
The idea is by having the right utilitarian stance, you can do the right things to decrease harm and
Althought eutopia is unattainable, we can all do our part.
The Third Criticism
when doing our utility calculus we need to figure out
When doing this you cannot count your own happiness as more because it is yours and likewise with
pain. You must act as a “disinterested spectator.” If there is a scenario in which the harm/happiness
happens to you, you must give the same weight as anybody else.
Page 19 – Private and General Utility
We do not need to factor every agent into account in figuring out our calculus. We only need to be
reasonable in determining how many people are affected by an action.
Page 20 -
We often have these feelings in certain situations. Mill tries to take these feelings out of the equation but
he also requries us to benevolent and keep those kind feelings going. They should not however be
factored in the calculus. Kant taught that feelings are inconsistent; we may feel one way in one situation
but we may feel differently about it on different times.
The Fourth Objection