Introduction To Philosophy II
Review of Terminology, Doctrines & Background Theories
Moral theories/decision making is just another kind of knowledge.
Recall the first two questions: what can I know? And how can I know it?
Our two questions of morality and God's existence are both also forms of knowledge.
Very basically we can divide how we can know things into two camps. One is reason and the other is
sensation. The difference here is grasping something either by the understanding, that is the rational
faculty available to us as rational human beings, or is by sensation or empiricism where all knowledge
comes from experience, that is to say that anything we call knowledge comes about through the
Proofs for God's existence can be divided into rational and empirical categories as well. Such as the
cosmological argument (rationalist) or the teleological argument (empirical).
Moral theories also can be divded in terms of rational and empirical categories as well. Such as Kant's
moral theory that is dependent on reason or Hume's theory which is dependent on feeling or
The Kinds of Propositions or Statements or Sentences
Propositions were divided into a matrix of four categories. Two have to with a term in the proposition
and the others have to do with the way we know them. For every statement there is a subject term and
there is a predicate term. The subject is what your are talking about and the predicate is a property that
you are attributing to it.
Analytic > a priori
All bachelors are unmarried.
You can the tell truth of the this proposition simply by analyzing the terms of the it. This is know
prior to any experience.
Synthetic > a posteriori
All bachelors are happy
In this type, the terms are put together artificially–they are synthetic. I have artificially chosen to put
happy as a predicate of bachelor. The only way I can determine the truth of this proposition is by
experience. And the only way I can determine by veracity of this is prior to experience.
Types of Values
Intrinsic and Extrinsic
The issue in the republic is the value of justice and the question is what is justice and where is to be
One position taken in the republic is that justice only has extrinsic value that is to say that is is good
simply because of what is brings about or its consequences. A quality like justice is valued only for
the good that it brings about. If we say that about the value then we are saying that it has extrinsic