PHIL 1000 Lecture Notes - Deductive Reasoning

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20 Nov 2012
Department
Course
Professor
Deductive -> if premises are accepted as true, the conclusion also must be
true
Inductive -> arguments based on experience-based knowledge (empiri-
cism); even if premises are true, the conclusion may not necessarily be true
Validity deals with structure and form. In a valid deductive argument, the
truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion
MODUS PONENS -> AFFIRMING THE ANTECEDENT
If P, then Q
P
Ergo, Q
MODUS TOLLENS -> DENYING THE CONSEQUENT
If P, then Q
Not P
Ergo, Q
SOUNDNESS = VALIDITY + TRUTH
CONSTRUCTIVE DILEMMA
Either P or Q
P yields X
Q yields X
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