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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 & 9 BAIER.docx

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York University
PHIL 1100
David Stamos

Lecture 8 & 9 The Meaning of Life – Kurt Baier  Efficient Causationthat which produces an effect by a causal process  Final Causation the end or purpose of a thing or process  Teleology -the study of design or purpose in natural phenomena  Steven Weinberg - “dreams of a final theory” a prize winning book Fallacy of Composition Parts Whole  1957  Contrasted the Medieval Christian views  Science discredited the Christian view  Started a revolution  Geology, Science  “Hence, many scientist educated people have convinced that...”  Religion gave us meaning of life, science took it away  Baier argues science does give meaning  Science and religion are NOT really conflicting  In this view, science only explains physical appearance  Religion explains the „why‟ of the physical universe  One is „privileged‟  Efficient causation „billiard bill‟  Teleology or telos end/goal, Plato says is the real explanation is found  Simply is a mistake to think to have two explanations  Might have NO teleological explanation  Teleology (wired into our brains, children do it) and final causation  Some can argue science does NOT satisfy in giving explanations  They give us the „how‟  Never ends  Theological are problematic Lecture 8 & 9  Philosophy of religion  Theologians say „God is a necessary being‟  Explanation stops at God  Logically must exist, therefore God does NOT need an explanation  1950‟s debate, between Catholic Priest (Theologian) and famous Mathematician  Capleston vs. Russell  „Idea of a logically necessary(Proposition, meaning only apples to sentences) being (not proposition) is self –contradictory, a oxymoron  Ex: find a married bachelor  1. „to the theologians, this is an impossible oxymoron‟  2. „even if there is a God, who is logically necessary, it does not follow theological explanation it is better than efficient causation‟  Cannot make something out of nothing  If there is no God behind the universe then efficient causation is better than theological explanation  Deist, a creator that does NOT govern  Both might involve infinite vicious mysteries  It‟s the mysteries of mysteries  Scientist will never go all the way because there is kinds particular phenomena  Steven Weinberg, 90‟s, “dreams of a final theory” a prize winning book  Physics will arrive to the final theory (closer and closer)  Macro physics and Micro physics is going to „mesh‟  Doesn‟t revolve in infinite regress  “If we have a final theory, we use a general theory”  Logically necessary, but logically isolated  No way to modify  “A perfectly full consistent explanation” (if we have the final theory) o Why is there anything at all? OR Why is there something than nothing?  The feeling is understandable  Doesn‟t to follow to spend time on why is there something than nothing  When taking this question to the extreme, can form mental illness  Having the feeling of awe does NOT mean it is a meaningful question  Just a expression of a feeling NOT a question  Hypothesis of the universe coming from nothing is impossible to believe  Logically newel/fallacy  Fallacy of composition, if one/all parts have property, then the whole has a property, is the OPPOSITE of Fallacy of division (based on inference rather than truth, first and second premise could be true does not automatically make it all true, Baier speaks of this fallacy and commonly occurs in Philosophy) Lecture 8 & 9  Fallacy of division, committed when a person infers that what is true of a whole must also be true of its constituents and justification for that inference is not provided.  Conclusion, universe if not a thing, but a fallacy of things  Universe must have a „origin‟  Universe‟s origin originated out of nothing  Denying possibility  Universe is eternal  „God made the universe out of nothing‟  What caused God?  God is an exception, no origin  Exceptions to the rule „everything needs a ca
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