April 1, 2013
Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw
Political intersectionality-messages and Ideological- politics also categorization
conflict women of colour experience. In terms of racism and sexism work against
women of colour. Subordinated in both. In activist circles- white feminists with
sexism, men of colour in racism- their voices are valued more.
Hiearchy: (not meantioned by Crenshaw, but is potentially a way of thinking about
race/sex power hierarchy)
Men of colour
Women of colour
-White women and coloured men are both oppressed and oppressors. Critiques of
second wave feminism acknowledges this. Arguably men of colour have more power
than white women depending on your perspective or the context.
The Stupid theory of equality- Brison uses Mickinneon’s term- when measures for
sexual or gender equality are actually oppressive. More oppressing, rather than
alleviating harm- administration on campus wouldn’t rape prevention policies for
women, disallowed rape prevention policies because they didn’t include men. Rape
prevention courses, women couldn’t get credit. Discrimination. Keep women
-Classes on rape prevention- For Brison, they are short term maybe, but it’s
Ruddick and Hook’s perspectives on child rearing (related to lectures on opting
out, women’s work)
-Childrearing- associated with women.
-Ruddick- Maternal thinking.
-She’s a radical thinker.
-She wants to ascribe value to maternalism- without essentializing. Women are not
the only one’s who can be maternal. Many feminist devalue the private realm- like
Friedan. And De Beauvoir- part of what keeps us from transcend is materialism. But
there are also groups of feminists revere motherhood- natural ability. They
essentialize women. They say that women should claim power in their biological
and social motherhood.
There are both feminists who devalue and value materialism.
-Ruddick wants make virtuous those things associated with maternalism- but it’s
not a sense of power for women, anyone can be maternal, men too. -There is an intellectual practice to maternalism- not mechanical or physical like
some would argue. Maternalism for Ruddick is a social category, construct. It’s not
1-Preserving the life of children- not just your own.
2-Helping children to grow and develop
3- Ensure children become productive adults in society
In order to do these things- it requires reflection and judgment- it’s not separate
from emotion but it is intellectual process.
Ways we’re not maternal
-Parents live through their children. This especially happens with Nuclear
families, not thinking about society. It’s only about your connection with your child.
Virtues of maternalism
1.Cheerful- but not blindly denies things, thinks everything is positive
2.Humble- but it’s not self debasement.
-Fluid idea of what it means to parent- change is expected. Child changes, parent
-Her expectation is that everyone is the community needs to assume the role of
childrearing. She collapse the binary- it’s not about masculine and feminine
behaviour- everyone raises children. Not even just dividing the raising between
mother and father- it’s everyone in the community.
-Love and Attention- intellectual capacities. We usually don’t associate th