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York University
Political Science
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh

 Ideology: Global system of thought based on the critique of the status quo that opens up to a view of the picture and that offers a precise program of action; employ propaganda to convince the many as such they both deform and magnify aspects of reality  Ideologies will offer meaning and identity in a world that has no meaning  Ideologies seem inescapable for modern secular societies (societies not organized by religion) o Religion is not eliminated but privatized o Nor do political leaders because their power comes from God  Two problematic consequences or dangers of ideologies o Intellectual laziness because all questions are already answered; no reason to question direction of society o Present particular interests as universal interests and for those who truly believe in ideologies, these can be seen as ultimate answers; others who don't believe, must be convinced into believing in these ideologies  Liberalism is not only capitalism, but also made up of cultural, intellectual and philosophical aspects that wericin must explore  Liberalism is the first of ideologies and will actually furnish the elements that make up the other ideologies  There is a founding resemblance between the major ideologies (spec. Liberalism and socialism) o Socialism can rightly be seen as the legitimate child of liberalism o Principles of socialism stem from liberalism but will distinguish itself from it o Conservatism is the opposite  Historically speaking, liberalism was developed as a replacement to the Christian middle ages  Also critical of the renaissance  Renaissance says lets return to traditional practices o But liberalism does not believe we can return to antiquity  Liberals will refuse the middle ages and the ancient Greeks and the ancient Romans o Middle ages is refused because it is a period of religious mystification o Greeks and Romans should also be rejected because they had mores (a habit of the heart; spiritual disposition)  Mores that were violent; good citizen had to be prepared to die  Liberals believe we must replace war with commerce and trade  Liberal ideology, like all ideologies, will be the expression of a particular social class (cannot have an ideology without a corresponding social class) o Merchant class; Bourgeoisie o Liberal ideology will be the justification of the dominant status of the Bourgeoisie o Understanding liberalism is a way to understand who we are  Continued identification of the good with the useful  Liberalism is a complex ideology and as such we cannot reduce it to a single variable  Seven basic ideas/tenets of Liberalism Nature, both the physical (outside world; forest, animals ect.) and human (inside world; spiritual) are governed by laws of nature.  Humans must obey these laws of nature if they wish to flourish and develop and obtain the greatest happiness possible.  Nature is abundant and generous and can be found in human nature. More specifically, happiness can be found in the full consumption and use of physical nature.  If it's natural it is universal; can be applied to everyone, everywhere, any era Reason is the fundamental manifestation of nature in human beings  Individuals naturally dispose of enough reason and enlightenment to understand the laws of natures  Through reason, we can understand the laws of physical nature. i.e. How it works  The idea that we can use and transform nature to ensure our happiness is founded on this idea of reason.  Therefore we can conquer and master physical nature. i.e. Build dams, dig for oil  Means we can subjugate nature for our own needs, justifies our needs. i.e. Justifies the destruction of forest  Progress and happiness depend directly on the rational knowledge (knowledge that is born of reason)  Liberals ignorance is the root cause of unhappiness and underdevelopment. I.e. To vote in favour of education rights for all, because it must be public and universal. Education works with reason and therefore allows us to maximize our happiness and wellbeing.  Because of this believe, liberals will reject external powers (Church or the State) that will attempt to govern how we live  Not of these external powers/institutions are necessary in order to obtain happiness; worse these powers are actually contrary to natural reason and therefore illegitimate 3. Nature realizes itself within e
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