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Political Science
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh

Liberal ideology: Liberal thought puts the rational individual property owner at the center of the world.  As individuals we have access to reason, through reason we realize that our happiness can be found in the full consumption of nature.  We realize that property is essential if our happiness is to withstand the test of time. In order to be happy we must own things. This is what is meant by the rational individual property owner.  As such we are at the center or the world/center of all occupations because no institution or collective body knows better than we do about our happiness or how to ensure our happiness. o There's no institution or body have can ensure our reason. We have to protect our property, to secure the property liberals recognize that we need the state.  Only the state can enforce contracts, build highways, guard against thieves etc.  However the state is seen as a necessary evil for liberals. In theory liberals will only give the state minimal functions.  In theory liberals don’t want state intervention but the need to certain things forces liberals to give more and more of a role to the state. o The state requires responsibilities notably for social programs and programs for wealth redistribution. o While liberals are in theory want little state intervention, however state intervention is what will ultimately save liberalism (Social programs and Wealth redistribution programs). o In a liberal economy you don’t want people saving, you want people spending. The only who would be saving are the rich. o This takes place in the beginning of the 20th century (First social programs), the second key moment is the New Deal time.  It is impossible to deny the historical success of liberalism, the power of attraction of liberalism.  From the French revolution onwards, Liberalism will be the guiding force of the movement of things in the western world. Liberalism will command major economic and social changes that will completely redraw and distribute the social economic configuration of 19th Century Europe.  Through industrialization are urbanization the social fabric of Europe will change.  Liberal thought will help reduce the arbitrary nature of the absolute monarchy in Europe.  The proclamation of universal equality will have profound social effects in Europe.  The Historical Success of Liberalism came with a price. E.G. o The liberal idea that we should exploit nature for the betterness of all, will create environmental catastrophe which humanity has never seen before. o Liberalism will be responsible for Exploitation, alienation and for the destruction of traditional communities across the planet. In addition to the destruction of the quality of life. Effects of Liberalism in the 19th Century  The changes that liberalism will bring through industrialization and urbanization ( The creation of large urban centers), both phenomena come about in accordance with liberalism. They both also create new social forces.  These new social forces born of the effects of liberalism, reject the liberal perspective as well as refuse the forms of domination and exploitation brought about by liberalism.  These new social forces will strive to create their own representation of the movement of history and the nature of human existence.  The emerging social forces of the 19th century react to the emergence of liberalism, refuse liberalism and they will create new ideologies that will compete with the hegemony of liberal thought. o Social force behind liberalism = Merchant class.  When speaking of social forces in the 19th century people think of the working class. The working class of the 19th century dominate the…. o However at the beginning of the 19th century the working class does not exist and the working class is in its formative years, developing itself, but it doesn’t exist as a coherent social force. o It will take a few decades before the working class becomes the principle alternative to the bourgeoisie o At the beginning of the 19th century the working class isn’t considered a threat to the emerging liberal order. Looking at the two key powers of 19th century Europe, France and Great Britain. There’s a mosaic  of social groups, who are disillusioned with the practice of liberalism.  There's 5 key groups who play a important role in the development of conservatism and socialism. o The Nobles: The noble class is a vestige of the Aristocracy. As a whole the status of nobles at the beginning of the 1800’s is downgrading, especially in the case of France (French revolution. In the case of England it is somewhat downgrading.  Even though the nobles are down graded in status, they still have their resources allowing them to fight back. In terms of ideas this noble class is divided into two camps. On one hand there's the nostalgic ones, who wish to return to the order of things to the old regime. They want to return to the lost values and privileges to the feudal order and the regime. (@ the forefront of conservative ideology.  The nobles not only agree with liberalism, they’re also in favor of accelerating the changes of liberalism (More Freedom/equality)  The nobles are enlightened because they want the attractions of liberalism, but they think liberalism is not enough because there should be more freedom and more and more equality ASAP.  Henri of Saint Simon- A noble/count one of the founders of… o The Artisans: Small merchant/producer who is at the forefront of the French revolution, they also play an active role in the making of the English working class.  The artists are in favor of liberalism, and they fight for it’s triumph.  However the artisans will not be able to reap the benefits and advantages of liberalism  These artisans are replaced by factories.  These artisans will be replaced by machines and be forced to become workers. There hopes and aspirations are therefore frustrated because of the effects of liberalism. This frustration will open their mind to radical ideas. o Liberal Professionals: Lawyers, Journalists, editors printers etc. This category is depicted in one of the most important literary works of the 19th century, “The Liberal Comedy”. o Educators and Intellectuals: Play an important role during the r
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