Class Notes (806,817)
Canada (492,453)
York University (33,494)
POLS 1000 (212)

Crisis of ideologies.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
Political Science
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh

 Society must mirror the structure of the universe or the universal order of things  This order is the product of a divine being or God o Will give meaning to the universe o And indicate where the universe is heading o If society is a mirror of this universe, society must also be structured  Individuals in all of this must respect and protect these natural institutions because it is through these natural institutions that we can understand the universe and be truly happy o Allow for the triumph of the superior principle over the inferior principle  Governments must ensure the peace and stability in order for these natural institutions to continue to exist o Has no business encouraging progress or change  2 tools used to socially discipline society o Education o Law  Both law and education take time and are slow, inefficient o Some conservatives will turn to violence both physical and symbolic (censorship, taking away rights) Socialisms  The socialist family of thought is diverse  All of the socialisms, have in common 7 basic principles 1. Socialism will share the optimistic perspective of ideology o Liberals argue that nature is abundant and that nature offered to human beings, who follow the laws of nature, the possibility of being happy o Socialists agree that nature is expressed as an order that contains its own laws and they agree that these laws must be obeyed o Humans must respect the laws of nature o Human nature itself is good and by following your own nature individuals can ensure their own well being o By ensuring your own well being, you are actually helping to collectively ensure the well being of all o Here, we can say that the starting point of social will mirror the starting point of liberalism 2. Contrary to liberalism, socialism does not give the priority to the individual o Individual - a self-sufficient entity o For liberalism the individual always comes before society and because of this there is a natural priority given to the individual in liberal thought o Liberals argue that society does not exist but the individual does o Socialist reject this idea but acknowledge that all human beings are individuals; argue that individuals are inherently social beings o Socialists say it is impossible to separate the individuals from society; individuals live naturally in society so we cannot reduce individuals to self-sufficient beings o We are naturally social beings so we actively live in society and actively live with others o For socialists we need others in order to fulfill our potential o Without others we could not develop our talents and we cannot be recognized of our talents; we need others to become better, we need others to recognize who we are o Humans are gregarious (fond of company, sociable) 3. A direct consequence of the necessary interplay between the individual and society, is that society itself cannot be reduced to the sum total of the individuals that exist within society o In liberal thought, society is born of the interests and the activities of individuals guided by reason o Socialists are strongly attacking and refuting the individualist posture of liberalism o The existence of society comes before the existence of the individual (PARALLEL TO CONSERVATIVISM) o Society has its own consistency, essence and its own objectives that cannot be reduced to those of the individual o Society is a substantive totality or we can say it is an autonomous whole and as such it is more than the sum of its parts o The priority is given to this substantive totality or to society o Individual potential is realized by society and in a certain sense, for socialists, it is the whole that determines the parts or it is all of society that determines the individual o This does not mean that the status or the quality of individual life is devalued; socialists are simply arguing that individuals alone cannot realize their own potential, that for their potential to be realized, there needs to be others. Society as a whole, offers meaning to the life of an individual. 4. Nature is present in all human beings (agree with liberals) o Agree that all human beings are born free and equal o Consequently, liberty and equality are founded in nature and because of this, they are, for socialists, both the instrument and the end of the realization of nature. o Contrary to liberals, socialists will argue that nature is realized through real equality and real liberty o This means that liberty and equality must be more than just formal principles (a principle that is abstract but it is not concrete) o For liberals everyone is equal but in practice, some people are better at acquiring economic goods than others o Socialism believe liberals only give abstract ideas of liberty and equality o In order to give concrete existence to equality and liberty, both of these rights must exist in society; must be part of everyday life in society o We can say that liberty and equality become universal in society; must be concretely realized; are key to individual and collective development and therefore they must become universal 5. The direct consequence of the need to universalize liberty and equality is that socialism will reject the liberal idea of the exclusive appropriation of property. o For liberals, the individual acquires property and it becomes the sole property of that individual o For socialists, the exclusive nature of private property goes against the universal principle of equality; you cannot have equality if you have the exclusive appropriation of private property o Socialism will refuse the idea that this individual appropriation of property is the motor of economy; this idea ruins the idea of true equality and of true freedom o The price paid for true equality and true freedom is the rid society of the exclusive appropriation of property. o For socialists, the institution of private property leads to economic exploitation and to political domination
More Less

Related notes for POLS 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.