Socialism will argue that because freedom and equality and equality are inscribed in nature
it must be the instrument and end of nature.
Liberty and equality must both be real, they must have a concrete existence in everyday life.
o They must be tangible
This is a critique of liberalism, lib will argue that they both do agree but they are formal
o they are freedom and equality of departure, but not outcome.
o They are abstract principles, they don’t need to have a concrete reality
For soc. The real culprit of this inequality and unfreedom is caused by private property
This private property must be replaced, it is by nature exclusive and it excludes equality.
Some of us are better at accumulating goods, which therefore creates inequality and class struggle,
which is what soc, will argue.
Private property will lead to economic exploitation and political domination, which will mean that it
will lead to real inequality
o domination will put an end to natural liberty.
We must replace private property, with state appropriation of private property, by creating true
Cons will say that reason without experience is useless.
The crisis of ideology rests on that we invoke ideas and principles born in the 19th century in order
to understand the political problems of the 21st century
Technology alone would create new ideologies, as well as any other modern problem.
There are many things that would lead to new ideologies: decolonization, extension of rights,
globalization, supranational communities.
Our understanding on our political life, is based on things we created two centuries.
o This will argue that we understand less and less about the political changes that govern our
o They probably don’t work
The double foundation of contemporary life with science and liberty
In the world beyond politics, he tries to give an impartial view of the world, and different political
Manant begins with poetry, quoting Paul Claudel.
The double foundation of contemporary life which is science and liberty.
o He asks a simple question - What is it that holds authority for us.
o By us he’s referring the citizens of western democracies
Authority – auctor: author – augere: increase/augment
Within the modern usage of the word authority, is the idea that it is something important,
foundational but there is also the idea, that it must be reinforced something that holds authority.
This parental authority, needs to be augmented and reinforced by society
Authority: authority refers to something that is foundational and something that needs to be
increased or augmented.
Science is the authority in the theoretical domain, whereas liberty is the authority in the practical
Manent will argue that contemporary society are organized for science and liberty, very strong
o Both have an active principle.
An active principle that guides/governs, the action of science or liberty. Science
He recognizes the huge differences of the complexity of the mind and life.
o They all agree on one principle.
o They will take on an unprecedented project.
o Science will try to understand the world as it is and not as it should be.
Science will tell us that we should look at the world as it simply is.
o His is known as the scientific project.
o A desire to penetrate the secrets of the world
The scientific project will not be able to tell us the mysteries of the world
The active principle within science, is this desire to understand the world as it is.
A project that aims at understanding the mysteries of the world and the world in secret, which has
moral and political problems
On a moral level, the scientific project says we must evacuate our understanding of the world our
illusions and desires.
o Manent finds an unlikely founder, Machiavelli
Epistemologiecal – episteme: knowledge
In the prince, Mach tells us that we must not first worry about morals, but first to look at its
o To politically analyze an action pay attention to what it does not the intention behind it.
The effectual truth of things.
o Stay away from speculation, and theory, just look at the consequences.
o Truth only appears as a consequence of the effects of an action.
The realistic response
Epistemologically speaking, the scientific project aims at an integral understanding of the world.
o It wants to know everything in the world.
o Through the SP, humans can uncover all the secrets of the world.
o Nothing should remain mysterious.
o The fundamental postulate here is that reality is intelligible/understandable.
Science hold authority for us, its active principle is to understand the world as it is, and not as it
aught to be.
o Realism is its moral horizon and its capacity to understand all things its epistemological
Liberty, it is one of the most recognized authorities. It has many difference