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women in contemporary society.docx

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Political Science
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh

REVIEW  Looked at the question of human rights  Understand nothing about human rights if we don't ask who are the bearers of human rights  What it meant to be human?  According to those who thought of human rights the first time thought human autonomy o The bearer of human rights is the autonomous human o The human capable of reasoning and making decisions o No longer dependant on transcendent beings  Immanuel Kant tells us that it is when humanity has the courage to use its own understanding, that humanity becomes autonomous o Because it becomes autonomous it gives itself its own rights o Put themselves at the source of their own rights o This idea is summed up by Latin expression "Sapere aude"  Practically, when the French decided to proclaim their rights and freedom, they didn't ask permission from the church o Simply said we will give ourselves our rights  Legitimacy therefore is confirmed not by God, but by human themselves  This idea that idea that Kant calls the entrance into maturity of humanity represents an important break with what comes before the French Revolution  This important break that we are autonomous beings is a fundamental component of the modern project  For the political critique (conservative critique) of human rights all of the above, is absurd and dangerous  Because it could lead to the dissolution of the institutions that shape us and ensure unity  This idea can dissolve family, puts an end to monarchy and transforms us into ungrateful beings  In addition, as Burke will point out as observing the affects of the French Revolution, he will call to attention that all of these ideas are abstract and therefore not applicable.  He asks what is the point of having abstract ideas of there is no political force behind it  Only rights guaranteed by a political community are rights that can be enforced and therefore are legitimate  Marx is behind the social critique  We think that rights is the free and autonomous individual but we're right  Human rights are not human rights but the rights of the Bourgeoisie  They are rights given to individual property owners  These rights enforce self-centred and egotistical endeavours  The revolution of the working class will lead to the creation of a truly free and truly equal community WOMEN IN CONEMPORARY SOCIETY  One of the defining characteristics of modernity is the movement of equality that is irresistible  This movement of equality is linked to the development of this sentiment of human likeness  This sentiment of human likeness means that the symbolic relationships that we enter into in modern society are more and more equal  These symbolic relationships that are more and more equal have to do with the question of qualitative equality and not quantitative equality (economic)  In terms of symbolic relationships, the qualitative or social relationships between men and women, it can be argued that they have never been so egalitarian even though there are still some problems  This sentiment of human likeness helped make more equal, the relationship between men and women  To understand the long journey of women's liberation, and the work that needs to be done, we will look at the "traditional sexual order" o Simply the dominate understanding the role of women before modernity  The traditional sexual order was based upon a political logic of command and obedience  Under the old regime, France as an example, society was hierarchical, and it was ordered following what were considered to be "natural" differences  In the context of such societies with hierarchy, relationships were naturally based on rank and on duty but they were not based, nor could they be based on equality  In this context, people were inextricably bound by relationships of command and obedience, cannot get out of these relationships  In a certain sense there is no basis on which you could say "I will not obey"  In these predemocractica, there was a "natural" order of things that must be respected  If we don't, society will dissolve  In this traditional order, the father has always been the head of the household and would govern the family  The father was responsible for all major decisions within the family unit  One of the most important decisions made had to do with the marriage of the children, the father would decide who the children would marry, because marriage was more than simply the union of two people, marriage represented the union of two families  Marriage was particularly difficult for women because they had no say under the rule of their father and later under the rule of their husband  For the rule of the father to be put into question we will have to wait for the emergence of the idea of consent  Consent will become the foundation of legitimacy and as such will play an important role in the destruction in the order of the
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