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Socialism Socialism lecture - Nothing is missing from this lecture because i type my notes during lecture.

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Political Science
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh

Socialism (other major ideological adversary of liberalism during the 19th C and throughout the 20thC) • Like conservatism, socialism and the birth of socialism is directly linked to capitalism • Behind an ideology you find a social force • The term socialism is a recent invention • First occurrence is in Nov. 1833 • Socialism occurs to mean a set of theoretical and political positions that oppose the possessive individualism • Socialists will argue against the idea that egotistic actions and private property are the exclusive motor of the economy • Socialists will attempt to resolve the problem the private property • The principles of socialism will mirror the principles of liberal ideology • Socialism won’t try to deny the principles of liberalism, wants to surpass liberalism [go beyond liberalism] and want to do so by pushing liberal principles to the extreme limit of their internal logic • Socialists will seek to go to the roots of liberal principles and it will point to the fact that liberalism does not go far enough, where liberalism stops socialism thinks we should continue • Socialists believe that this liberal part of departure entails that we should have a equality outcome, liberals don’t believe that this should be the case, liberals believe that equality of chances are important. Socialism takes a liberals promise “everyone’s born equal” and turns it around on them. [socialists will actually maximise the universal nature of liberal ideology; they will push to the maximum of the universal context] • Socialism is the child of liberalism • Liberalism naturally gives birth to socialism • First is liberalism, then conservatism then socialism • Socialists will be dissatisfied with the end result of liberalism • Socialism will be liberals in a hurry • Industrialization and urbanization will work together towards the modern social class • Despite this diversity all socialists share of part take in these 7 principles • 7 different principles of socialism 1. Nature is essentially positive • Nature is expressed as an order that is made up of laws • For socialists these laws of nature must be obeyed • The order of nature is good and human nature is also good • If we obey the laws of nature we can ensure our well beings; by doing so they also ensure the well being of the whole • Starting point of liberalism 2. Contrary to liberalism, socialism does not give the priority to the individual understood as a self sufficient being • For liberals the individual always comes before society • Socialists will reject this idea • They will concede to liberals that we are all individuals but for socialists individuals are inherently social beings [we naturally want to live with others; as a matter of fact we naturally live with others] • We cannot separate the individual from society • We can give priority to the individual but there's no separation between individual and society • Consequently individuals are not self sufficient; we have needs that only others can provide for us.... old saying “ no man is an island” [ so we need others to live, were not self sufficient] • We actively seek to live with others, to live in a society with other people • For socialists we need others to become who we are, to fulfill our potential, to have others around us • We can have all the talents in the world but if no one was around us to recognize this we would have nothing, thus without the presence of others we could not waste our talent • Humans are a gregarious[outgoing, seeks the company of others, enjoys the company of others] animals [ both conservatives and socialists agree that we need others to move on in life] 3. A direct consequence of this idea that were naturally gregarious animals is that society cannot be reduced to the subtotal of the individuals living in that society • As explained in liberal thought; society is born simply of the interest and the activities of individuals guided by reasons • Socialists will strongly refute this consent for society [** for socialists society exists before the individual] • Society has its own consistency, its own assents and to those ends that can be reduced to the consistency, essence and ends of the individual • For socialists, society is a substantive totality [autonomous whole]; it has its own essence, it’s a whole upon itself, its more than the sumo f its parts and the part being the individual... for socialists individuals are parts of the whole • Without the full participation of society • Participation of the collective good or the society is what will offer meaning of the individual 4. Socialists will agree with liberalism that nature is present in all human beings • By nature we are all born free and equal • In liberal equality it’s not something invented were born free • Because liberty and equality are founded in nature, and they’re both the instrument and the end of the realization nature • In order for individuals to be happy human beings must obey the laws of nature • **The content of nature is fully developed and realized through real liberty and real equality • This means that liberty and equality are more than just formal principles [formal refers to the fact that in liberal thought the principles of freedom and equality are abstract and not concrete, their abstract] • In reality we know that some people are better than other people at acquiring economic goods • ** the formal equality of liberal thought rapidly becomes a tango manifestation of inequality • To a large degree socialism can be understood as a critique of the formal nature of social thought • Liberal and equality should be more than simply formal it must be real to everybody/universally be free and equal • How do u go from a formal principle to a real principle? • You ensure or intently ensure that both liberal and equality are a part of everyday life • Must be concretely realized in society • For socialists both freedom and equality are key to individual and collective development 5. A direct consequence of the universality of liberty and equality is that socialism will reject the liberal idea of the exclusive appropriation of private property • As the term Possessive Individual refers to the individual in liberalism acquires so • For socialists the exclusive nature of private property goes against the universal principle of equality [if you want equality you’re going to have to do something about private property or if you want something it has to be exclusive and not collective] • For socialists private property will lead to economic exploitation and political domination • The few, who own a lot will oblige the many to work for them in exchange for wages • As Aristotle says “ in politics the rich are always small in number and the poor are always great in number” [And so u will have the few that own things who will seek to exploit the many] • The ultimate consequence of explo
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