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Political Science
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh

January 16th, 2012 Professor Martin Breaugh  Ideology - idea ; logos = science o De Tracy o 1795 o Napoleon will attack ideology and a negative connotation will be associated with it.  The German Ideology by Karl Marx and Fredric Engel o interpretation of the movement of society given by a particular social class by presenting them as being universal and even as necessary Ideologies are the expression of both relationships of power and class struggle An ideology will justify the position and the point of view of a particular social class by presenting it as universal and necessary.  4: Ideologies from Marx and Engles don't only present a biased interpretations of society, they offer an ideal representations o Understood as the best possible society, taking into account human needs and human capacities o Each ideology will not put forth an ideal that is impossible to obtain but one that is important for our needs  This need is usually blocked by from factor or another by society i.e. existing social classes  This ideal needs to be put into action  Ideologies are future oriented  i.e. After the French Rev. Gets rid of the heredity principle (social hierarchies) and monarchs, Conservative thinkers will put forth a form of thinking that is based on natural hierarchy. This will allow monarchs back into power.  Ideologies require political action, they call for political engagement and participation o This must be realized for our good, or the betterment of humanity  i.e. Marxism and Marxist; through out the 20th Century worked to find their ideologies.  POTENTIAL EXAM QUESTION: Taking the six point definition of ideology, taking each of the six points, tell me what comes from Marx and Angles and what doesn't.  Ideology o Ideology is a global system of thought. This global system of thought leads to specific attitudes and behaviours in society. January 16th, 2012 Professor Martin Breaugh  Friedman ideology is a set of beliefs, opinions and values  EX. Conservatives will usually demonstrate a respect for hierarchy in society  Whereas socialists, will usually refuse relations of subordinations. (not comfortable in hierarchy situations, believe in equality)  This global system of thought will express the interests and the aspirations of a particular social class or social force  Will be made up of principles and of theoretical notions that offer a global interpretation of history, society and of human existence  As a summary, ideology is a world view that takes the perspective of a particular point of view, of a social force behind it, but presents this world view as universal and necessary o All ideologies imply a critique of the present situation, of the status quo.  This critique will be shaped by the particular social situation that the social force behind the ideology finds itself in  The here and now invariably informs ideological thought  EX. Conservative thought is born after the French Revolution  Conservative thought tried to show how the new situation in France led to the social bond (Social bond referring to the different ties that bind people together in a particular community)  it helped people understand what their place was in the world, and there is very little social mobility in monarchy so your place was defined and marked in monarchy  Allowed for people to understand what their role was in society  After FR, conservatives will critique the French Revolution in Fance, the critique they give will be shaped by the face that they are no lnger in charge  Their critique is because they are displaced as a ruling class  They see chaos and say that they need hierarchy 3. Not only do ideologies offer a critique of the status quo but they offer a vision of the future  Offer an ideal model that must be protected, restored or realized  Because usually, Liberals seek to protect an ideal or a model such as the free market or state intervention  Usually, conservations seek to restore a bygone or institution like monarchy January 16th, 2012 Professor Martin Breaugh  Usually socialists want to realize a different model of society, sometimes with the associated of all, with all  This model is presented as being necessary for the well being of all and as a political objective, its attainable  All of these models take into consideration human needs and human aspirations as they are seen by the social force that drives an ideology This means that models are practical and not Utopian  4. Because ideologies are future oriented, they call for an act of commitment  Don't just want people to passively adhere to their ideals, but ask for an act of commitment from those who believe it them  Involves a precise program of action, that can efficiently realize the model of the ideal  In terms of a precise program of action, think about the creation of a new political system  New institutions, new way of engaging in political life  Can also consider the restoration of a old political system as a program of action  Or we could protect something that already exists 5. Ideologies seek to convince the many  Because they seek to convince the many, ideologies
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