• Midterm exam: Multiple choice and one short essay answer, one to two chapters.
• Only successes to reintegration have happened outside institutions
• Prisons rates do not correlate to crime trends, they did initially
• While there has been a general increase in the united states, the united states locks up
more human bodies then any other liberal democracy and there has been a steady trend
• Prisons continue to receive public support, not because they work.
• Prisons do not work but we continue to support then because we don’t have any other
• The historical trend is that incarceration rates have been increasing steadily over time.
• Mass incarceration is a mass phenomenon beginning in 1972
• An increase in the rates of general incarceration also correlate with an increase in
• Corrections are subsystem of criminal justice system, the very bottom end.
• Corrections are also a general philopsohy for responding to criminal offenders
• Corrections are a range of services and programs some of which are delivered in a
community setting which means the majority of offenders that have been processed by
the courts are not incarcerated. Correctional services also includes substance abuse
programs, anger management therapy, group therapy and curving anti social behavior
and also specific therapy dealing with mental illness and cycosis and finally vocational
programming and educational programming.
• Educational programming takes place inside facilities
• For the purposes of employment, vocational training, takes place both inside and outside
• Corrections has carceral and no carceral componenets to them
• Non carceral institution implies to any program outside of prison; any personal that is
charged with overseeing offenders, these could be both public and private institutions
• Carceral institutions and these are secured, closed, custody environments. • What are the philosophies of punishment;
i. retribution – there should be a price to be paid for the harm that you have caused.
The state telling people that it cares for their security and safety
ii. Deterrence & reductivism – this is the aim of punishment is to deter crime and
prevent its reoccurrence. Deterrence, even though is a central component to why we
punish, it is still a problematic issue, and has proven to never work efficiently. The idea is
if we punish people then other people will know what the likely consequence would be.
More importantly for the offender, punishment readjusts your cost benefit analysis for
action. The assumption is that we are all rational actors, we are all motivated by the
same desires and inclinations; punishment being proportionate to the crime committed
or what we also call ‘just deserts’. Try not to punish to harshly, attempt to think or
entertain other means other than incarceration.
iii. incapacitation- Remove the offender from the society (to incapacitate) – this
assures you that he/she would not reoffend again.
iv. Rehabilitation and reintegration - When incarcerated, prisoners should have
strict routines, which include; socialization, exercise, manual labor, rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation is a giant umbrella term for many different programs. What is the purpose
of this giant umbrella term. The function of rehabilitation is reintegration. The great
majority of offenders would be paroled sometime during their sentence.
• The certainty of apprehension is a greater de