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4 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2200
Danny O' Rourke- Dicarlo

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3/5/2014 • Prior to 1940s we don’t have a youth crime problem, just a crime problem • Growing urbanization – out of cities that are growing in densities and size • Reformed labour practices – which set minimum standards, who is allowed to work legally. • Mandatory schooling – all children under the age of sixteen, must be enrolled in some form of public education. • Economic development in particular cities. • Created a new leisure class, a class of people that have more time on their hands then they ever did prior to. • As cities grow they start exhibiting crime rate increases. th • In the mid 20 century there is a movement to establish a system of youth justice that will both get tough on crime but focus on rehabilitation. • The principles behind modern youth justice deemphasize deterrence. The idea is youth punishment ought not to be associated with harsh penalties for the purposes of deterring further crime. The logic is; we cant treat children like adults cuz they are not adults. A childs mind has not been harded just yet. But there is a great possibility of that hardening happening if they are processed through youth or adult facilities as a form of punishment. • Sending children esp those who are low to mid risk to youth facilities greatly increases the likely hood of them returning. What we also know is young offenders who are residibus have a great likely hood of becoming adult offenders. This isn’t a soft approach, it is a reasonable approach. What we are trying to do is to avoid institutionalizing people from an early age • Prevention followed by intervention. Intervention are efforts that are targeted at young people that seem to be at a high risk for delinquency. • Young offenders act attempted to implement these two principles… it did so in a kind of unprincipled way. • How could we use public policy to address both young offenders and young offenders who are at a high risk of further delinquency. • Unlike reforms to murder sentencing, the ycja depeneded on research based intiatives to guide its policies. • the ycja has been somewhat successful in making sure young offenders don’t become adult offenders. • High activity neighbourhoods are first priority • Gangs have always served as a bridge between youth and adult hood • We also know that gangs have always been an alternative means for social advancement • Gangs that were concerned with are semi organized to organized, they are defined either by street or by neighbourhood. • Gangs are primarily populated by clusters of young men. • When young men cluster together in a group and fight for dominance, violence always follows. • Why do young people join gangs • Anthropological – the gang to a large degree provides for a membership that replaces or a place holder for a family. The appeal of the gang is clan-like and somewhat triable. A sense of belonging to a group that has somewhat of a hierarchal order. Social disorganization – gangs are a product of destructive forces in inner city neighbourhoods. Researchers time in and time out have always suggested that the typical gang member comes from a family which lacks both financial means and adequate role models. Overall the disparticular view assumes that gangs are a natural response to poverty whereas poverty could be displaced by status of membership within the gang and it also suggests that gangs are primarily a median for boys whose economic aspirations are not being realized by legitimate means. We also know that the boys who belong to these p
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