• Prior to 1940s we don’t have a youth crime problem, just a crime problem
• Growing urbanization – out of cities that are growing in densities and size
• Reformed labour practices – which set minimum standards, who is allowed to work
• Mandatory schooling – all children under the age of sixteen, must be enrolled in some
form of public education.
• Economic development in particular cities.
• Created a new leisure class, a class of people that have more time on their hands then
they ever did prior to.
• As cities grow they start exhibiting crime rate increases.
• In the mid 20 century there is a movement to establish a system of youth justice that
will both get tough on crime but focus on rehabilitation.
• The principles behind modern youth justice deemphasize deterrence. The idea is youth
punishment ought not to be associated with harsh penalties for the purposes of deterring
further crime. The logic is; we cant treat children like adults cuz they are not adults. A
childs mind has not been harded just yet. But there is a great possibility of that
hardening happening if they are processed through youth or adult facilities as a form of
• Sending children esp those who are low to mid risk to youth facilities greatly increases
the likely hood of them returning. What we also know is young offenders who are
residibus have a great likely hood of becoming adult offenders. This isn’t a soft
approach, it is a reasonable approach. What we are trying to do is to avoid
institutionalizing people from an early age
• Prevention followed by intervention. Intervention are efforts that are targeted at young
people that seem to be at a high risk for delinquency.
• Young offenders act attempted to implement these two principles… it did so in a kind of
• How could we use public policy to address both young offenders and young offenders
who are at a high risk of further delinquency.
• Unlike reforms to murder sentencing, the ycja depeneded on research based intiatives to
guide its policies. • the ycja has been somewhat successful in making sure young offenders don’t become
• High activity neighbourhoods are first priority
• Gangs have always served as a bridge between youth and adult hood
• We also know that gangs have always been an alternative means for social
• Gangs that were concerned with are semi organized to organized, they are defined
either by street or by neighbourhood.
• Gangs are primarily populated by clusters of young men.
• When young men cluster together in a group and fight for dominance, violence always
• Why do young people join gangs
• Anthropological – the gang to a large degree provides for a membership that replaces
or a place holder for a family. The appeal of the gang is clan-like and somewhat triable. A
sense of belonging to a group that has somewhat of a hierarchal order.
Social disorganization – gangs are a product of destructive forces in inner city
neighbourhoods. Researchers time in and time out have always suggested that the
typical gang member comes from a family which lacks both financial means and
adequate role models. Overall the disparticular view assumes that gangs are a natural
response to poverty whereas poverty could be displaced by status of membership within
the gang and it also suggests that gangs are primarily a median for boys whose
economic aspirations are not being realized by legitimate means. We also know that the
boys who belong to these p