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Political Science
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POLS 2910
Gabrielle Slowey

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September 17, 2013. Jennin Brodie: Citizenship is legal inclusion within boarder territorially internationally recognized state Canada is • Hockey • Maple leaf • Beaver, queen • National anthem • CBC • Health care • Peacekeepers • Monarchy • The Bay • Nations are often identified by our values and citizenship • Idea of citizenship is identified as contested Citizenship and Social Class • TH Marshall 1893-1981 • British sociologist, wrote an essay on “Citizenship and Social Class”- 1950 published o Analyses the evolution of citizenship of 18 century, 19 century and 20 century th o 18 century: given legal equality, given civil right, authoritarian rule, citizens were equal before the law o 19 century: political rights on citizens/ right to vote(franchise), indecisive to the states liberal democracy (increasing our legal equality) o 20 century: how it changed over social rights application because it provides all citizens with social equality(formal equality)—tide to welfare state, representing citizens(social rights), gives equality for health care, education, welfare services • TH Marshall argues that formal equality abets the substantive and real social inequalities of class and status; it ameliorates the substantive inequality of a capitalist(has its class inequalities) society • Marshall: civil, political and social rights • The state is giving us rights (the states decides when to give social and political rights o Working in the interest of citizens(TH Marshall) • Marxist critics critique Marshall as his analysis to be superficial because he never addressed the economic production • Feminist critics critique that Marshall that it is very narrow analysis of citizenship and he ignores the reality of women o When it come to voting only men with a certain amount of wealth and property were entitled to vote • Marshalls theory was observed upon what he has saw in England What are some of the challenges to Canadian Citizenship? Federalism Regionalism Intra- provincialism Sub- identities/cleavages We have provincial and Quebec in Canada We have different Toronto urban working federal government identities class, rural farming Scotland in England agricultural identities England is unitary state which means they have a central government and municipal governments Q: Do we have the relinquish sub-identities to achieve universal status? Competing concepts of Canadian society: Compact Theory of Confederation • Between provinces • Between nations: English and French Who is missing? • Aboriginals • Women • Immigrants • 1867 coming together as a nation and forming ourselves a nation, cared about provincial and federal rights • Charter of rights and freedoms • Until 1947 we were all British subjects • Aboriginal people couldn’t vote until 1960 • Until 1975 you could of voted in the Canadian election while being a UK citizen Ideal Citizen (Marshalls lack of idealism) Pre WWI: loyal subject of Empire Pre WWII: caring/ sharing Canadian Today: entrepreneurial Canadian • Ideal citizenship does not apply in reality What about Globalization? ­ Multiple forces of globalization are detaching citizen from their allegiances to country and from their national cultures and identity (Broodie, 28) o Social justice September 23, 2013. Political Theory and Culture Theories help us explain how politics operate and how the state is related to society Political Theory • Provides a framework for understanding what causes an event or a serious of events Approaches to the study of politics • Pluralism- 1960s; post cold war environment(sell to the third world) o Robert Dahl: group interests were critical in understanding policy formation and how decisions were made • Public choice- 1970s; economy theory comes into play o Rejects Dahl’s model o Government operatesstate operatetherefore that is how you understand how they operate  Market operate- state operate(politicians make promises in exchange for votes-re-election_  Burocratcs have more power  Stagflation/ rise in state deficits (to explain why this was happening) Class analysis(Marxism) Original Marxs Marxism ­ Karl Marx ­ 20C ­ Das Capital 1864 ­ state/ politicians act to protect/ maintain ­ Focus: capitalism capitalist social relations ­ Capitalists/ workers ­ states job is to protect businesses ­ borgiousis ­ key factors: wages/ pensions ­ minimize the role of the state in society ­ formation of unions to lower wages workers go on strikes, mediate the conflict between wages and labour ­ Marx maintaining the state capitalist relations—focus on the societal aspect State itself is an institution and is above itself as a society • State-centered analysis- 1980s; focus on institutions and how they interact and affect society (political parties, legislations, elites) • Globalization-1990s; focus on how external forces influence domestic actors and public policies (NAFTA) Pluralism-group interest State centered-institutions Globalization- external interests (determine the way government act) (began with the search of Christopher Columbus) Class- interest in capital Public choice- self interest Political Culture Pg: Dyck 241-242 quote ­ Foreign trade is 30% of Canada’s national income • Political culture people are interest in why do we behave the way we behave o Values, beliefs Canadian political culture also includes: • Federalism(electoral system, regional political culture) • Rights based thinking (charter of rights, bilingualism since 1970) Fracking: is the extraction of methane oil and gas off through the ground (is a cheap way to extract gas, makes water in the North not drinkable) Political theory vs. Culture Theory Culture Provides a framework for understanding what Are the attitudes, beliefs and values we have causes an event or serious of events regarding our political system Ex: Karl Marx, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes Ex: democracy, sovereignty, equality and freedom Louis Hartz (Fragment Thesis 1964) • Liberal tradition in America • We are fragments the way we act Gad Horowitz (Tory Touch 1966) • USliberal = British • CANliberal + tory = tory touch Seymour Lipset (Formative events 1990) Canadian vs. American political culture Canadian values American values - Balance between individualism and collectivism - Stronger penchant for individualism - Heterogeneity (tolerance) - More homogeneous - Defence of authority redistributive - More likely to challenge law/ government - Egalitarianism - “we the people” - Diverse - Melting pot Canadian political culture is changing - Neil Nevitte and the decline of deference - Ron Inglehart and postmaterialism - MichaelAdams and the myth of convergence Tutorial: Political (agency) elites (ideologue) what ought to be (interests) monopoly IDEOLOGIES grows out of political culture partial Individualism (Locke) communitarianism Socialism conservativism (collectivism) (Hobbes) Marx State Evolution Representative government/ responsible government Governor Governor Governor Council Executive Council Legislature Council Executive council Legislative council Assembly Assembly September 30, 2013. Constitutional Development I: 1867 Institutions (2.4 chart) House of Commons Governor General Courts PMs Office Political parties • Institutions are structured relations or systems of rules through which choices are made conflicts are resolved • Legislature, judiciary burocracies—wheal authority on behalf of the state (so when we talk about government is all of that and these institutions wheal authority on behalf of the state) Early Settlement and Political Institutions Royal Proclamation 1763 • First constitutional document in Canada(pg.20) • It signified the French suasion of land to the British Empire o Created the British colony of Quebec that was then called New France o Protected Aboriginal interests • Was issued by King George III • Battle: Planes ofAbraham—the conquest of 1763 the lands of French became part of the British Empire –British government issued the Royal Proclamation Quebec Act 1774 • Established a council that would govern its people o They can form their own governing body o Establish a council to advise the governing council of Quebec  Quebec colony and English colony o Advised the person who was in charge under the QuebecAct • 1776 down south US- declared independence of Great Britain • French people in Quebec thought this would give them a sense of freedom and dignity, so they were pleased with thisAct o Executive council CA1774 achieved representative government created a set of political institutions that included representative government • It was new set of institutions but its was an elected assembly • Protecting(language and religion—important in Quebec) Constitution Act 1791 • Representative government- they elect people to represent them (pg.22) they were not democratic o The government that was run by ignoring them that is why it wasn’t democratic • Lower Canada(Quebec) Upper Canada(Rest of Canada) Durham Report 1839 • Recommends to unite upper and lower Canada into a single colony • Responsible government Act of Union 1840 • The government was accountable Responsible government • Requirement by constitutional convention(it’s a practice a tradition it is not written down) that to remain in office a government must retain that support of the legislature • The party in power must retain the confidence of the house in order to govern o Budget is a vote of confidence • The Prime Minister and the government must retain the confidence of the House of Commons if it is defeated in a important bill it must dissolve Documentary: JohnA: Birth of a Country • On confederation • 1867 4 provinces(New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia) the rest of Canada was Rupert’s Land(Hudson Bay)birth of Canada when it came together and became a country • 4 provinces Britain east/west trade alliance • first national policy The Road to Confederation • Confederation was precipitated by the ConstitutionAct 1867 • Economic factors 1850: o when British government moved from the colonial trade regime to the new regime of Free Trade—Great Britain created these colonies as a way to extract resources o suggested that colonies come together and form a trade alliance between them Britain and the 4 provinces (Industrial Revolution) • Political factors: o shift in capital between Toronto and Quebec; o George Brown anti-Catholic o JohnAsaw this as dead lock and wanted to bring it back together o Capital Ottawa unite lower and upper Canada • Military factors: o Americans are coming over(Civil War) to take the rest of Canada; soAmerica does not come and take over Canada was only if Canada came together and formed a country through ConfederationConstitutionAct of Canada 1867 Terms for Canadian Institutions Canada- constitutional monarchy not a republic UK- parliament is in Westminster Queen(governor general) Queen(monarch) Prime Minister Prime Minister Senate House of Lords House of Commons House of Commons Constitutions Countries Executive System Judiciary State form Unwritten United Fusion of powers Westminster Judicial Unitary state Kingdom (prime minister is part model independence (central of the cabinet) government and a variety of municipal government) Written United Separation of powers Presidential Judicial Federalism States (office and the congress system review and the and the courts) division of President is separate powers from the congress/ check and balances Both Canada Fusion of powers (sit in Westminster Judicial Federalism the same house of model independence and the commons) division of powers AVdici(monogrol constitution) ­ Sovereignty is wasted in parliament(parliamentary supremacy means parliament is supreme), because it is based on responsible government—it is the ultimate law making body in Canada ­ Federalism was a compromise that Canada came up with in 1867, JohnAwanted to be unitary state just like Great Britain Federalism(Division of Powers) ­ Division of powers on a territorial basis between two levels of government ­ Amethod of dividing governmental powers so that the general and regional governments are each, within a sphere of jurisdiction “coordinate and independent” Confederation Compromise 1. Division of powers (1 national government, 10 national provinces and 3 territories) 2. Division of financial resources 3. Federal controls imposed upon the provinces 4. Provincial representation in central institutions 5. Certain cultural guaranteed (Quebec concern was religion- creating separate schools) Division of Powers=Federalism s.91=federal powers (financial, strong states) s.92= provincial powers (weak provinces) Trade and commerce Health care Taxation Education Military Welfare - direct and indirect taxes - direct taxes Intentions of farmers: Centralization (to have more power over the provinces) - gave federal government ways to control the provinces and maintain central power POGG(peace order and good government) • also know as Residual power clause Declaratory power • 1940 last time used o used for oil and gas industry inAlberta o 2 or more provinces Power of reservation • if the left handed governor does not approve they can reserve the power and not sign Disallowance • avoid provincial power within a year • 1930 last time used in Alberta • federal government cannot this it goes under disuse Inter vs. Intra state federalism INTER- executive federalism Ex: first ministers conference INTRA-institutions Ex: house of commons or senate(compromise) Senate- regional representation House of Commons- represented by population ON -24 QUE -24 NB+NS(Maritimes) -24 Tutorial: Old conservatism Old conservatism party New conservatism New conservatism party Religion Brokerage party Small government Failure Organic change Anti Americanism Free market Process of liberal parties Class harmony Natural opposition Liberalism(old) Nothing(empty box) Toryism individualism Community of Pro americans communities Morally divided Democratic tools(referendums, senate) Church and state October 7, 2013. ­ Each province has its own law and they only affect their own citizens n that province it cant pass a law that affects people in other territories in Canada Watertight compartment theory • Sovereignty is divided(between provincial and federal governments) • Power is divided territorial Federalism • Ontario(legislature, queens park, left handed governor) premier • Ottawa(governor general, house of commons) institutionsprime minister • Aset of institutions- multi-level governance and the division of powers • Aset of ideas- shared governance, multiple loyalties and identities(every province has its own jurisdiction) • Central provides the idea of unity and diversity to coexist Where do power lay the jurisdiction or the constitution? BNAAct: similar in principle UK US= decentralized federalism Canada= centralized federalism (means weak central government (more like UK unitary state) and strong state) - Harper government is the #1 decentralized government in Canada Principles of the Canadian Constitution  Responsible government  Federalism  Judicial review  Constitutional monarchy  Rule of law  Democracy Post- Confederation(First National Policy)FNPinitiated by JohnA. (domestic policy- Canada West) Economic developmentAgenda: • Transcontinental railway • Land grants in Canada West • Western settlement policy • Tarrifs(tax) on imported goods to Canada—internal Political implications of FNP= Federalism s.91= federal powers s.92= provincial powers - trade and commerce - education - taxation - social services Constitutional Development II-1982 1867-1982: from colony to nationhood (people are missing—citizens) I. Aconstitution: What it is? II. What changed? 1867-1982 ­ Quebec and Quiet revolution ­ Trudeau’s constitutional vision III. The constitution of 1982 ­ Domestic amending formula ­ Charter of rights ­ 1867 government constitution; 1982 citizens constitution 1867 Constitution focused on institution and its relations ­ Identity(gender, indigenous etc) ­ outlines the roles of the judiciary, federalism ­ Relationship between governments not government and citizen What does a Constitution do? Outlines the relationship ­ Between institutions of the state(constitution of 1867) ­ Between the federal government and citizens (constitution 1982) The Constitution consists of contested views about:  Institutions: senate, federalism, judiciary  Ideas: equality, diversity, fairness, citizenship  Identities: francophone, aboriginal people, women, disabled, gays and lesbians THE COSNTITUTIONAFFERMS WHAT IT IS, WHAT IT WAS,AND WHAT IT CAN BE Constitutional Development II:-1982 ­ Quiet revolution and the Quebec o Conquest/cession of 1763 o Compact theory of confederation 1867 o Quiet Revolution QuebecAct: 5 important issues • Abolish the power of assimilation • Took some land from America and gave it to Quebec • Allowed sceneries • Allowed code civile • Allowed protestants Dualism was entrenched in our constitution  Quebec believed it was not 4 provinces it was 2 races English and French  Quebec believed that the constitution gave them a political veto(a constitutional veto)believes till this day Asymmetrical Federalism • Federal system that provides for differences in sub-national groups or legislatures Trudeau’s constitution vision wanted a domestic amending formula; without having to go back to England to do so • Domestic amending formula • Charter of rights and freedoms Charter of Rights and Freedoms 1.1 implied rights(1867-1960) 1.2 bill of rights- Diefenbaker(1960-1982) 1.3 charter of rights(1982-present) Entrenchment 1960: Bill of Rights • Applied only to federal government • Not entrenched in constitution 1982: Charter of Rights • Applied to all levels of government • Entrenched Canada’s Constitutional Odyssey in search of a DomesticAmending Formula 1867: BNAAct 1926: Balfour Report 1931: Statue of Westminster 1964: Fulton Favreau Formula 1971: Victoria Charter 1981: Patriation Reference • Can federal government patriate constitution unilaterally? Yes, legal to proceed unilaterally constitutional duty to consult provinces DomesticAmending Formula 7/50(1 provinces with 50% population) Charter of Rights: Domestic, mobility, legal, equality, minority, language and education, aboriginal rights etc… Tutorial Democracy=majority rule(single Canadian group) 50%+1 - Citizenship Individual interest group Canadian=Un-American - Democracy Demos=people(the rule of the people) - Women are minority group(they use the charter to present power through the use of the charter sections that apply to their rights) - Democracy ability for people to speak(having more voice, that means the majority does not have the right to speak) --The myth(Philip Bryden) p:101-102first and second myth - Elected judgesunelected judges(Martin article) p:97 --Unelected judges are between because they wont be biased --Elected or unelected they are still going to do things based on the law - Canada is not democraticthey way we elect our Senate - Prisoners can vote in Canada --In America you have no voting rights(so if you have a criminal record you cannot vote) - Martinstructural argument(idealistic) --Only about institution - Brydenout comes the processes of democracy(historically realistic, normative) --Increase visibility --Self describe, self identify -Abeyanceswhen some part of the charter can cancel each other out, meaning you have something written but it is vague and can be challenged if you have the (4main provinces, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Ontario) October 21, 2013. Quebec Je me souviens- (I remember) 1) From conquest to conscription ­ New France (L’ancien regime) o Battle of Plain ofAbraham 1759, followed by the QuebecAct ­ Conquest, 1763 ­ QuebecAct, 1774 (la survivance) o Sceneries, catholic, church, code civil o Government decided to abolish the constitution to allow Quebec to manage on its own ­ Confederation, 1867(compact theory) o Coming together as a nation Quebec, New Brunswick, Ontario, Nova Scotia o For Quebec it was coming together in two races, the English and the French (Quebec had a constitutional veto) ­ Riel rebellions, 1870 ­ Manitoba School Crisis, 1890 ­ Conscription Crisis, 1917 Confederation, 1867 Quebec’s reason for confederation were: Economic: wanted to reap benefits of St.Lawrance system Geo-political: west to settle, possibility for French people and French culture to expand into west Security: fearedAmerican annexation ­ Get their own government, which would then allow them to get institution that they would control ­ Looking at west and thought that it may be possible for an expansion of French colonies ­ Wanted to be part of the St. Lawrance trade system Benefits of Confederation ­ get own government control own institutions considered critical ­ opportunity to participate in affairs of new country ­ economic benefits of new trade system ­ French language was constitutionally recognized ­ Religious education guaranteed, this critical since power of church lay in their control over education Louis Riel a Metis leader who was hanged for treason, has become the subject of historians, security again, now that previously unread diary has come to light in North Dakota’s state archives ­ Catholic French society that’s being ruined by English protestants coming from abroad Crisis of Quebeckers ­ Manitoba School Crisis o Manitoba became a province in 1870, then came up with ManitobaAct in this act they made sure that English and French will be the two languages used in legislation, courts, and religious school would be protected ­ Conscription Crisis o Bordon, drifted this conscription, which is where young man go to war o Conflict between the French, they protested in Quebec, Quebec didn’t want to go to war to fight for a king/ queen if they didn’t think it was their leader The Quiet Revolution and the Rise of Separatism ­ Quiet Revolution 1960 o Transformation of Quebec into modern society ­ October Crisis 1970 o FLQ kidnapped a Quebec cabinet minister and British diplomat ­ Parti-Quebecois 1970 ­ Referendum 1980 o Sovereignty association implies a continued relationship with Canada especially an economic relationship DomesticAmending Formula Search ­ BNAAct 1867 ­ Balfour Report 1926 o Allow colonies to have some sort of independence ­ Statute of Westminster 1931 ­ Fulton Favreau Formula 1964 o English and French team to come up with an idea ­ Victoria Charter 1971 o Constitutional veto offered Patriation reference 1981  Q: Can Canadian federal government patriate the constitution unilaterally?  A: Yes, it would be legal to do so however it was a constitutional convention that the federal government consulted the provinces ­ Domestic amending formula created in 1982 would allow Quebec to have a veto over constitutional changes ­ Trudeau language right, is the one who decided to unilaterally change the constitution ­ Took it do supreme court, supreme court ruled Timeline (no vote means that no vote for renewed federalism) ­ Quebec Referendum #1 o 85% turnout (49% yes, 51%no) ­ Constitutional act 1982 ­ Rene Levesque dies 1985 o Leader of the PQ party ­ Mulroney tories elected to power 1984 From Trudeau to Mulroney 1982 Trudeau 1984 Mulroney -anti-Quebec -pro-special status -pro centralized federal -pro-decentralized federal -anti-asymmetrical federal -pro-asymmetrical federal Quebec’s 5 demands: Meech LakeAccord 1) Constitutional veto restored 2) Quebec recognized as a distinct society 3) Jurisdictional control over immigration 4) Role in SCC appointments 5) Financial compensation for opting-out Why Meech fail? 1) substance - distinct society - bill 101- s.33 notwithstanding clause 2) process - 3 year ratification period - executive federalism Charlottetown Accord 1992 1) Triple “E” senate- to Alberta 2)Aboriginal self-government (land claims, treaties protected 3) Canada clause (distinct society) Referendum #2- prelude 1990 formation of Bloc Quebecois 1992 defeat of CharlottetownAccord 1993 Quebec election: PQ defeat liberals federal election: Jean Chretien PM and BQ official opposition 1995 Referendum #2 Era of Non-Constitutional change PlanA: Reconciliation Plan B: Tough love ­ federal legislation ClarityAct ­ recognized distinct society ­ lack of clarity in question ­ constitutional veto ­ what constitutes a majority Secession Reference 1998 ­ no constitutional provision for separation ­ if clear vote on clear question then must negotiate terms of secession Liberal elected in 2003 73 seats liberal 48 seats PQ 4 seatsADQ Harper on Quebec November 2006: resolution in House of Commons recognizing that the Quebecois form a nation within a united Canada October 2011 Harper introduced: elected seat redistribution +2 “Quebec always wins” 2012 PQ re-elected talking about sovereignty Night of the long knives 1980 written by Rene Leveque, happened when the prime minister Trudeau brought the Canadian constitution home, BNAAct statue of British parliament, and Trudeau thought to bring home a revised statue constitution where Canadian no longer needed Britain’s approval in order to change it included the Charter of Rights and Freedoms to protect citizens from the actions of the government. The treaty was signed by 9 premiers only Leveque’s refused (7-50 rule)Quebec did not sign the constitutionera of constitutional renewal, 1985 Leveque’s dies. October 28, 2013. The External Constitution State and Government State Government -population -manages conflicts -land/territory -protests from threats -sovereignty -makes decisions Canada is a sovereign state State Sovereignty Is Canadian sovereignty being eroded by forces of globalization? Globalization: a collection of cross or supranational powers generated notably by corporate businesses encouraging the lowering of barriers to international trade, affecting national politics and culture (John McMenemy) Ex: NAFTA Adam Smith: invisible hand ­ Lassie faire capitalism holds that the common good is served by the uninhibited pursuit of self interest 1) Rights of individuals (liberalism) 2) Minimal government 3) Maximum markets John Maynard Keynes ­ Radical notion of interventionist state, need maximum governments ­ Economy was human made artefact and he believed that people can control the economy 1492-1930s 1930s-1970s Globalization I: Keynesian welfare state Adam Smith John Maynard Keynes ­ wealth of nation ­ the general theory of employment, interest and money 1936 ­ idea: laissez faire capitalism and minimal state ­ idea: state intervention and market regulation ­ World war 2: was good for the economy put people back to work crisis is good for capitalism ­ Keynes is saying that capitalism is based on commodity production, make things and have people buy ­ Cutting labour costs, by replacing it with technology ­ Over production and under production ­ Government intervene actively in the economy(Keynes) o Welfare: education, health, Canada’s economic action plan o Even if government went into debt it was good because it kept the economy going ­ 1994, 44 countries met in Bretton Woods came up with a cooperation capitalism o Keynes thought we should have world reserved currency (US said no) Bretton Woods ­ Roosevelt: countries, Canada,Australia, Sweden, followed Keynes theory of a new way dealing with the economy ­ Came up with a corporate system ­ Keynes believed it would build a stable economy International Monetary Fund (IMF) • IMF: create economic stability for a world which was just been through the trauma of wars and depression and it was suppose to facilitate the expansion of growth of international trade, major part was to oversee exchange rates remote currency convertibility • Fixed exchange rate, currency exchange, lander of last resort • Keynes thought that it should be a clearing unit, that provides to countries loans that are experiencing problems World Bank • Building infrastructure, roads and so forth General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT) • Aim was to reduce national trade barriers • 174 state, 30 observers • Is an international treaty • Become known as WTO (World Trade Organization) to persuade free trade with a single mind true believer has more power, behind closed doors 1970s Today: Globalization ­ Government change (people could not borrow money no loans and this lead to the rise of neoliberalism) ­ Policy change ­ Free trade agreements Neoliberalism ­ not state spending but individual spending maximum government, minimum markets (Adam Smith version) ­ describes contemporary economic and social role of government political agenda ­ trade and investment liberalized
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