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Political Science
POLS 2940
Glenn Goshulak

rd Thursday October 3 , 2013 Introduction to International Politics – Lecture 4 International Relations Theory 1 Realism and Liberalism  Theories are about ideas, ideas are connected to actions, theories is always for someone and some purpose  A theory provides a framework for understanding what causes an event or a series of events o Cause effect relationship o They are also connected to making arguments. The “cause / effect” a particular  Is based on a rational approach o We can better understand the world if we look at it rational  Theories involve basic world views and are not necessarily objective Realism  Traditional paradigm: based upon the following assumptions: o That nation-states, in a „state-centric‟s system are the key actors o That domestic politics can be clearly separated from foreign policy o That international politics is a struggle for power in an anarchic environment  Anarchic – there is no over arching central authority o That there are gradations of capabilities among nation states – greater powers and lesser states- in a decentralized international system of states possessing legal equality, or sovereignty  Mencius (Confusionism) vs the Legalists (HanFei)- 300 B.C o Han Fei: human nature is bad self serving  System of rewards and punishment  Totalritarian rule – all parts of society are dictated from governing authority. o Confustis- Human nature share a similar and good nature, each indv has potential to be virtuous. Set moral  Kautilya (Maurya empire: India) – 300 B.C o Ruler should use any means to attain his goals and his actions require no moral sanction o Stay in power however you can , don‟t worry about the morality of what you do (the main idea is to stay in power)  Thucydides (thu-si (500 B.C) o Melian dialogue- illustrates key principles . classic politics perspective- we are more powerful , just submit.  They are force to submit to the iron law power o Peloponnesian wars – underlying causes of that war was ; attributed to growth in Athenian and the fear of Sparta.  Anarchic system , survival key element of state behavior, balance of power . changing distribution of power.  State principle actor, unitary actor (speaks acts w. one voice), decision makers rational – weighing. Issues of security are the most important. State builds‟ economy goes to war builds‟ alliance for security.  Security and survival in the face of insecurity o Machiavelli (16 century)  Security of Florence – do what you have to do to survive. th o Morgenthau (20 century)  Saw rise of Nazi Germany- innate drive for power and  Power politics o St. Augustine (5 century)  „humanity is flawed , egotistic , although not predetermined to be so‟. (this is what we become) o E.H. Carr : „the 20 years crisis)  Less than 20yrs after founding of league of nations that were suppose to stop those things  Interested understanding – power seeking of states  Emphasizes the role of fear in explain ww1  Power seems to create appetite for power. 40min-42min prime idea of classical realism  So we have these very key elements Neo-realism  They don‟t believe it‟s as a result of human nature  They see 43min due to the lack of an effective overarching authority. Anarchy and balance of power  Stephen Walt: (defensive realism – overall the goal is still security) o Structure of the system- o Organizing principle:  Anarchy and hierarchy  (no centralized authority to keep everyone in line. Some have more pow
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