Emergence of the modern state system
Feudalism- characterized by a series of overlapping personal ties. Individuals pledge loyalty to nobles of
various ranks. Those nobles would pledge loyalty to higher ranked nobles. These ties are not permanent.
At the top is the king. Initially kings were just lords with a lot of land and nobles pledged to them. And
the claim to kingship is an individual claim. If local lords and nobles accepted it, you are king. Lords and
kings did not necessarily hold contiguous lands. Many times the land the king owned was in the middle
of another person’s land (had to cross other peoples land). Land of nobility.
Roman Catholic Church. Holy roman emperor was the hand of the pope. The roman church was
organized parallel to nobility.
Kings, nobles(land owners), ecclesiastical(church), authority, the pope(s).
Ecclesiastical authorities: Priests, deacons, bishops, archbishops, cardinals
Many people thought they were popes at the same times!
Loosly organized, not very permanent, a lot of competition for your loyalty. You could live on a lords
manor and never see him. The church was everywhere!
Varying levels of effectiveness(church). Closer to rome the more obedient.
Military force is controlled by nobles who have men pledged to them. Kings didn’t nesessarily have more
military force then other nobles. Nobles were afraid if king controlled to many forces. In order to wage
war a king would need to get his nobles agree to go to war(military was private). No taxes. All income
was based on rents.
Rents- income was based on a proportion of what your land was worth(i.e how much grain you sold
If a king tried to income rent, he would likely face a rebellion from nobles who had armies.
Magna carta- document forced by the nobles to lesser the power of the king over them.
Church would collect tithes- like a tax, just not collected by state. Forced to pay! Most tithes inclined
(eggs wool, chickens, resources etc.)
Tithes based on ecclesiastical boundaries. Churches have their own boundaries. Anyone living in it pays
the tithes to whatever church.
This looks a lot like modern day territories. Feudal Europe. 1648. Feudal economy.
Based on the extraction of wealth from land. That wealth was located in the argricultural products of
the land, hunting, mineral extraction. Very little technological development, more wealth=more
land(only way). Intelecual developments of renascence and capitalism, becomes possible to extract
more wealth from same amount of land.
Pressure for greater centralization, but also opposition for centralization
Opposition- resistance from others in the system who didn’t want more of their wealth extracted from
Sheer practical difficulty controlling vast amounts of land. Only way of travel was riding, boat or walking.
Communication was done through travel.
Control is through messengers and soldiers. These people collect the rent. Drive to centralization is Very
slow without technology. as slow as it was, centralization still took place and a king was born. Most
consolidated king authority, England, france and spain. (looks the same to this day territorily)
Rest of Europe it was less complete. 200-300 individual political units in Europe, Germany divided into
many different groups.
Consolidation of land was important in a number of ways, it enabled much greater knowledge, therefore
control over territories