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Political Science
POLS 2950
Simone Bohn

1. Cardoso & Falleto argue that underdevelopment is not a stage that precedes development. On the contrary, both are integral parts of capitalism. Please explain. • Authors: Cardoso; Falleto; Basil; Davidson; The Economist Articles on China and Colonialism • Define underdevelopment and development o Underdevelopment: Having a low level of economic productivity and technological sophistication within the contemporary range of possibility (e.g., Sub-saharan African countries) o Development: Having a high level of economic productivity and technological sophistication within the contemporary range of possibility (e.g., USA) o Not lineaer; traditional definition and critique o Underdevelopment is not a stage that precedes development o It might prevent development from occurring o Development is not a direct ramification of undevelopment o Underdevelopment is a historical, structural problem • Why does this world view not suffice? • Colonialism and Capitalism need both • No global north without global south • Critique = both necessary simultaneously for capitalism • Colonizers needed African resources in order to become developed • Latin America o Export-oriented: to produce internally to what they were importing before  Critque: ISI = dependent on foreign technology o Neoliberalism/NAFTA  Critique: A tool of the dependency approach to keep global south (periphery/semi-periphery) dependent upon global north; a form of neocolonialism via Washington Consensus and free trade agreements such as NAFTA o New Left Turn as a response  Rise of leftist waves to fight neoliberalism beginning in 1998 in Venezuela • 1. Pragmatic: Socialism; trying to create friendly capitalism with fiscal discipline • 2. Other: Break with Washington Consensus policies; renationalization without fiscal discipline 2. How did the embedded autonomy of the Japanese development state help the economic modernization of this country? • Author: Evans • Argues state is both a problem and a solution; problem = neoliberalism/neo- utilitarianism • Why does the state become a problem? At What time in history? o 1980s o Theoretical background that argues that markets are natural and operate very well on their own • Structural adjustment cannot be done without the state as the state does the adjusting • The state stays central to the market and markets cannot operate without them because the state has regulating capacity • Japan = successful development state; state facilitating capitalist growth • Post WW2 (lecture 3) • During Cold War Japan is necessary for the US because of the safety perimeter • General Douglas MacAthur helps Japan write a constitution • Recreates Japan as a new capitalist state • Japan becomes regional leader • Define development state • Meritocratic bureaucracy • Corporate identity: state identifies with corporatism • Corporatism: when the state and market are embedded; partners in developing state • National corporations • State facilitates; gives kick-start • Evans: Don’t dismantle development state becuase look how good Japan is doing • Development state is still a capitalistic state 3.How do Inglehart and Welzel see modernization? According to them does the latter lead to democracy? • Authors: Inglehart and Welzel; Cameron; Schanism; Huntington • Democracy and modernization • Bottom line: Yes • However, a long term road • Rapid modernization leads to Fascism • Some necessary cultural and social conditions that need to be in place • Modernization will help to uncover them • They will lead to democracy • Liberal democracy • Marxist theory of modernization vs. capitalist theory • Argue: economic development is conducive to democracy • Underdvelopment casued by lack of cultural and social conditions • Focus on growth of middle class • Middle class push for liberal democracy • See themselves as self-expressive not survivalistic • Traditional to secular o Value system of cultural and social conditions • Argue 4 ways in which modernization theory has changed • Implications? • Conclusion: do need economic development for democracy • Second: a positive implication for US foreign policy (capitalism, free trade, and etc) • Critique: Trying to promote liberal democracy; however, also negative implications (e.g., Iraq and to some extent Afghanistan as well) • Imperialism • Left turn articles critical too. 4. According to Pippa Norris, does modernization increase gender equity? • Authors: Norris; Inglehart; Welzel • Argues if there is gender capitalist development there is gender equity due to social changes and generational gaps brought by modernization • Define modernization: the process of industrialization which affects the social, economic, and political institutions of a state • What is gender equity: equal opportunity for both genders • Inglehart/Welzel: democracy/modernization • Norris: gender equity/modernization • Need to talk about economy and relationship between democracy/modernization and gender equity/modernization • Traditional values • Generational gaps • Labour -> author sees equity when women enter workforce • Equity – right to labour outside of home • Critique: well what is gender equity? Does not give a complex idea of gender equity • Shadow gender equity • Why is unpaid labour not considered labour? • Men function through the labour women do at home (e.g., cooking, cleaning, and etc) • Doesn’t it contribute to men’s paid labour • Missing history; dismissing evidence that non-European traditional societies were very equal • Why does Norris think women in India who don’t work are unequal • There is a role to play • Economic view • If you work and live in a capitalist society you will be modern and have gender equity • Not the case in Saudi Arabia and Japan Question 5: According to Thornton, China is undergoing important domestic changes. Do they point to an incipient process of internal democratization? Mao Zedong a 1940 political official proposed a democratic dictatorship. This era marked the end of a true dictatorship by Mao and another lead Deng, who proved suns concept of democracy was of less importance. Though Mao and DEng did agree that democracy was needed as a mechanism for chine to achieve its real purpose. This led to electoral experiments in the lowest run of Chinas political later village and minor townships. The minor township and village democracies resulted in often corrupt and rigged results. It was rigged because there was vote buying, nepotism and elections of incompetent leaders. An open selection and recommendation system also took place where people were recommended for election where they would ultimately be elected by the local peoples congress. The village democracies were seen in two ways 1. Great representations of democracy, 2. The democratic elections were being manipulated. Mao’s campaigns culminated in the Cultural Revolution, which cause intense political ferment. Mao also broke with Russians in launching cultural revolutions in aiming to crate socialist society rather than both egalitarian and bureaucratic. Mao also realized that post-revolutionary societies engendered their own contradictions. There was combination of domination new class based on control of
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