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POLS 3085 (1)

Lecture #4 The Republic.docx

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Political Science
POLS 3085
Stephen Newman

Lecture #4 September 18/ 2012 The Republic - Socrates turns his attention to the claim to what prasmacus has said, that justice is more prothimicable then justice. - Prathamacus says, “it’s better to be unjust then just” - He says that because the craft of the doctor benefits the patient and not the doctor, it is necessary that craftsmen are paid a wage. That they get paid to practice their crafts, otherwise thye would get nothing out of it. - Craft is one thing, payment is something else. - Socrates draws this analogy. He says if ruling is a craft, same must be true. Rulers must be paid, must receive something to practice the craft of ruling, because that crafts benefits their subjects not them. - Socrates and prathamacus are agreed on this point, they agree rulers have to get something out of ruling or else they wouldn’t do it. But they differentiate on the structure. - Prathamacus says they rule only to exploit their subjects, Socrates see a contradiction between care and ruling for exploiting. - Socrates proposes that rulers either receive a payment to rule, that payment can be money or honor, or he says persons must be compelled to rule by threat of a penalty. (look up the penalty, book 1) - Thrasamacus becomes the main interoloctuor. Step by step Socrates gets him to concede a) that hteh wise and good man is just, rather then unjust and b) that wrongdoing/injustice is self- defeating - Its self defeating because acts of injustice so discord wehther be in the family, or in the city, or even in the soul of the individual. This is presented as common sense. In contrast, justice, righteousness that unites people, unites them in friendship. Book 1 concludes with Socrates refuting prathamacus claim, that the unjustice man is happier then the just man. Happiness is talking about a condition where you feel yourself living to your full potential, where you are flourishing as a human being. - Socrates gives an analogy between the human soul and the organs of the body that provide us with sensory inputs. Talking about eyes and ears. Eyes allow us to see, ears to hear. Eyes and ears have a virtue, special excellence of the ey is sight. Ears have a special excellence, hearing. What makes an eye virtuous is that it performs its characteristic function well, and you can talk about the virtue of everything this way. - Socrates follows this analogy, says the human soul like the eye or ear, has a characteristic function, and this function is taking care of things, ruling, delivirating and alike. A little further he says that living is a function of the soul too. What we may cocnclude form these remarks is that for Socrates the soul makes it possible for the body to be living. A body without a soul would not be alive, but for the first thing that souls have a special charactering is to rule and etc. the soul is not a principle of animation but also refers to that part of our being which we would refer to as mind/intellect. - If it is the function of the sould to deliberate, function etc, then what is the special excellence? According to Socrates
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