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September 17 – Human Rights and Global Economy.docx

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York University
Political Science
POLS 3255
Antonio Torres- Ruiz

September 17Human Rights and Global EconomyCentral ConceptsHuman rights Global Economy How do these two concepts relateDefining Human Rights What are human rights Classifying human rights Generations of Human rightsSome Relevant Ethical QuestionsPeter UngerLiving High and Letting Die Economic decisions we make also significantly affects those who are underprivilegedhow can we get some products that are cheap Because there are some exploitation behind the product that is madewe are also responsible for someone elses sufferingit is not necessarily because we evil but the system which functions through certain mechanismsin economics there are theories that help us explain why people behave the way they do Why do we tend to optimize the given number of resources What are human rights Defined as human rights refer to certain life conditions to which you are entitled simply for being a person or a member of humankindregardless of your background identity legal status or any other marker that you can think of as part of your identity Historically the idea of human rightswhat we define has been highly contestedmostly because there are some culturestraditions that bring the debate of whether it is our duty or rightwhen you talk about entitlement you are talking about a claimfor some it is an individualistic way of claiming somethingfor some cultures before you have any rights or make claims you have some dutiesresponsibilities as members of a larger collectiveif you do not fulfill your duty first you are not allowed to make such claims that is why it is highly contestedthere are some strong arguments against the notion of fundamental rights because there are some who think the collective comes firstie all Christian people all Jewish people all Muslim people etc If you think about it Christianity or other similar religions when you are taught about certain values it is about how you should behave first and not what you should claim Growing recognitionwe can set a date1948time of the declarationdraftingsince then there have been grown recognition on the need to settle fundamental rights for everyonein 1948 not all countries were represented in the UNbecause many of them were still colonizedthe fact that they did not participate led to the questioning of the universality of the declarationand since then different conventions have been put etctherefore we can safely say that there is a growing recognition on the legitimacy of human rights discourse UDHR1948Central to usthe holocaust as a catalystwhich made the panel saynever againas to what had happened to the Jewish population90 of the native peoples in the Americas were killedand it took centuries for people to come together and prevent this from happening any furtherThere was a strong reaction because it was happening in Europe Critique the declaration does not have the force of lawthere is an attempt in intl court of justice to put this into placeit has dealt with only few cases and few people have been taken to the courtit deals with politics UDHRPreamble read the 30 declarations and print it outthe countries who signed it were still not engaging in solving the issues which were existent in their countriesClassifying HRCivil and political rights political rights directly related to the possibility of you participating in your political communitypolitical process right to votenotion of citizenshipit is the citizens who can enjoy these rightsright to life civilright to freedom civilpolitical right of associationEconomic and Social rights healthcare education right to work etc International Bill of RightsUniversal Declaration of Human RightsInternational Covenants A Intl Covenant on Civil and Political Rights B Intl Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights countries who dominated the bill emphasized on civil and political rightsWestern countriessuch as Soviet unionegalitarian modelsome countries were not impressed and that is why it remained as a declaration In1966after some negotiations more if not all African countries becoming independent siding with those in favor of economic rightsbecause they wanted to change the conditions of their people from a social and economic levelat this time two covenantsmentioned aboveit took ten years for them to come into effectbecause when treaties are signed there are certain timelines followed in terms of ratificationfinally they came to effect in 1976however some countries like the US did not sign the Economic and Social Rights because according to their ideology they do not agree with an emphasis on this principle Generations of HRit is how they were first recognized in the international systemthe basic rights that were first recognized as such were civil and political rightslater on although they were included there was an expansioncertain sequence st1 Gen Liberal tradition associated with Covenant AIntl Covenant on Civil and Political Rightsthey were the most central rights in part of UDHR nd2 Gen Mostly supported by Communist countries and the Global South associated with Covenant BIntl Cov On Economic Social and Cultural Rightsrd3 Gen solidarity rights collective the first two generations focus on individuals but this third generation focuses on the collective and it is only in recent decadesin 1992 an important year for the Americasgovt of Latin America were getting ready to celebrate the 500 yrs of the Americasyear 1492however not everyone was happy to celebrate it as a happy moment and those were the first nations of the
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