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Lecture 13

POLS 3260 –Lecture 13.docx

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York University
Political Science
POLS 3260
Saeed Rahnema

POLS 3260 –Lecture 13 October 24, 2013 ISRAEL AND ARAB NEIGHBOURS  7.7 million in population, including Jews in the occupied territory and 1.5 million Arabs  23.6% non-Jews, 76% Jews (22% are European American, 5.9% are Asian, 4.2% African), 16% Sunni Muslims, 3.2% others  GDP (PPP-purchasing power of currency in particular country rather than using US dollars) 32, 000 per capita, GDP is 252 billion  West Bank population is 3.6 million, 325 000 Jews  Gaza has 1.5 million  Total in occupied territory is 4.5 million  6 million Arabs, close to the 7 million in Jewish population  Demographic dilemma  Ethnicity 83% Arabs, 17% Jews, 8% others  West Bank GDP is 8 billion, with 2 900 per capita EGYPT  85 million in population, largest country in middle east in terms of population, 90% are Muslims and 99% Arabs  GDP- 548 billion, per capita is 6,700 Syria  22.4 million in population, 90% Arabs  Majority Sunni (74%)  GDP 107 PPP JORDAN  6.4 million in population, 98% Arab  GDP 32.2 billion and per capita is 6100 PPP LEBANON  4.1 million in population, 95% Arabs  GDP 64.2 billion, per capita 16000 PPP  1881-1903 there were several pogroms, discrimination against Jews many fled from Russia  1906 in the region there were about 700,000 Arabs and 55,000 Jews in the Palestine region and many of those Jews were not Zionists but Jews who had survived in the region  The Zionist movement which eventually chose the holy land to be homeland for Jews had created a problem for the fathers whom developed Zionism and that is what was to be done with the inhabitant population  Two options were in mind: (a) To establish a South Africa government, Apartheid system, (b) the other was to expel Arabs forcefully then have increased immigration and in a sense to reconstruct the make up of the country  British Mandate 1923-1948 o British tried to control certain areas and allowed Jewish immigration, this angered the Arab populations and led to conflict o 1921- Cairo Conference- British installed Faisal (Hussein’s son) as the King of Syria but the French came and expelled him o 1916-first Arab Revolt- Arab writers attacked Jewish communities, the Jews unhappy with British protection so they developed their own military -haganaha o 1936- most organized Arab revolt against British o The British had promised this land to two people o Churchill white papers o 1930 o *1937 and 1939- peel –first proposal for partition of land divided in 3 areas, Arabs rejected this plan and the plan was not successful and conflicts between two sides continued o Jewish started forming their own t Irgun (1937)- military association of Bitar and leader was Begin who later became president of Israel o They blew up hotels, killing many of British and Arabs and British put their name under their terrorist groups and name was given to Interpol o Jewish argued that since they are fighting for liberation this is not a terrorist act o Israelis also established Shibet o Another terrorist organization established out of Irgun called LEHI and they were more radical but their leader was captured by British and hung o Then a period of fascist rule occurred all leading up to the holocaust o After the war conflicts were still apparent and worse than before o The conflict between two sides became so difficult that British took the mandate to the United Nations in 1947 o 1947 UN planned for partition of land, two plans existed:  Minority plan –put forward by several countries including Iran and India suggested there should be a confederation of both groups this proposal was not approved because Americans and Israelis denied it  Partition Plan (Majority plan)- Jerusalem remained as an international city and the rest were divided, but immediately the first war started, the first Arab-Israeli war began in 1947 before declaration of Independence by Israel  8 major waves of immigration: o FIRST WAVE- late 19 century  Religious, limited immigration o SECOND WAVE 1904-1914  From time of the pogroms prior to Russian revolution to the beginning of the war  Mostly Russia and Eastern Europe as a result of pogroms  Jews were forced to live in the ghettos in Eastern Europe, not to deal with the rest of the population – terrible situations therefore many escaped o THIRD WAVE 1919-1923  Mostly from Russia, due to the Russian revolution even though many Jews were many of the leaders many escaped due to problems of the revolution o FOURTH WAVE 1920’s  Mostly from Poland o FIFTH WAVE 1933-1939  1933- rise of Nazism and fascism  Mostly from Germany- Western Europe o SIXTH WAVE 1949  After creation of the state of Israel 
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