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Lecture 15

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York University
Political Science
POLS 3260
Saeed Rahnema

POLS 3260- Lecture 15 GAZA (cont’d)  1949- Gaza went directly under the control of Egypt, they made it into a free trade zone and Gaza prospered  1967- Israelis take over Gaza strip and start to build settlements, although the settlers were 3% population of Gaza they controlled close to 40% of the land in the Mediterranean area that was the most prosperous  some settlers later developed some relationship with local Gaza population  Gaza has 1.8 million in population, vast majority are refugees  The settlements at the later time with the decision of Aria Sharam who decided that keeping settlement in Gaza is expensive and problematic  And looking back at the first taking over of Gaza a lot of Israelis opposed this as Gaza was such a small population of Arabs  With the constant confrontation between settlers, keeping this settlement became too expensive and Sharam decided to remove them, although reactions existed  Settlers disagreed but he sent IDF and forcefully removed settlements  In order to confront Palestinian fighters, historically it was the PLO and the MAN which tended to liberation front  Israelis contacted Hamas and agreed to give them money because they wanted to weaken the PLO  (Swiss doctors who where examining Nasser’s clothing found poison)  Hamas had already developed their own army, Sam (after their first martyr)  Hamas developed its own organization  Structure of Hamas: o Commando units, intelligence, and charitable organization  Mashan Khaled leader of hamas almost assassinated, stabbed with needle, but Syrians didn’t want him to die there so Israel was contacted and the antidote was sent and he didn’t die  Hamas went through several phases: Phase 1 1977-1988  Foundation of Hamas to the first Infidata 1994-2000  Failure of Oslo period, 2000 was the second Infidata 2000-2006  Israel started assassinating most of the Hamas leaders, Israel pulled out of Gaza 2006- Present  2007 Hamas got seats as well as PLO in the election, 2007 Hamas comes into power as Coup d’état, killed many PLO in order to take over, two Palestinian governments established  Israel closed down all the borders to Gaza and it became the biggest prison in the world, started to build tunnels, each average 1.5 miles and through these they send everything (resources) smuggling  Gaza itself is close to the discovery zone of major oil and gas reserve, in 2000 an agreement was made to explore this gas reserve, but Israel blocked this off, Palestinian could never explore oil options and their fishing access was cut off as well EGYPT  Dates back to 8000/10000 BC  Starting from 1 century, Egypt became part of the Roman empire  Later Egypt became one of the centers of Christianity, the Coptic Church (branch of eastern Christianity- Mark Jesus’s apostle takes Christianity here in the 1 C.)  The Coptic now are 9% of Egyptian population, about 8-9 million mostly in upper Egypt th  7 century when Arabs and Muslims invaded the region and the Coptic welcomed the Muslims, with condition that they seek protection and can keep their religion peacefully  When Muslims came and took over, the Copts could maintain their religion, but living under the Islamic rule they had to pay a special head tax: jizya o On one hand they weren’t forced to convert o On the other hand they became second class citizens  After the Crimean war 1853, changes made to the life of Copts, Sultan removed the tax (jizya)  The interrelationships between Christians (Copts) and Muslims continued but with Islamic fundamentalism on the rise the situation for Copts became worst  Lots of limitations placed on them, they couldn’t build new churches or easily repair old ones  The Christian population is declining migration is on the rise amongst the group  20 C. the Arab Israeli war had great impact on Egypt  1948- Egyptian army was also involved in the war but they were limited, British turned Egypt into a protectorate, never colonized but were controlling their economy and politics  Egypt had already seen another glory during the Islamic era  10 C. a group of Shi’as Fatimid they separated themselves from the Abbasi’s and they built a new city Cairo, established new educational institutions th  13-15 C. Mamluk dynasty- Another significant part of the history of Egypt is Mamluk (owned), warriors (abbasid caliphs, Turkish tribes) violent fighters were brought as slaves, converted to Islam, all feudal households had these, at a later time when we have the period of Crusades they came to play a significant role, in one of the wars Ayubid kings in a crusade war dies and his wife continues to lead the army and under the leadership of this women they defeated the French, she couldn’t be the leader but they forced her to marry a Mamluk, from here on Mamluk becomes royal. When Mongols start war they looted Iran and Iraq, but when they got to Egypt Mamluks fought with them and Mongols couldn’t devastate Egypt  1798 Napoleon invaded Egypt, he became very impressed with the Mamluk and established a Mamluk brigade and some of his most important guards became Mamluks  1806 – Muhammad Ali became viceroy (top colonial administrator of Ottoman Empire) of Egypt, wanted to be viceroy of Syria but the king dint agree, he did it anyway o Was suspicious of the Mamluk, so he invites 700 top Mamluk leaders to Cairo for a negotiations and then on the way he ambushes them and kills them all  1860’s Egypt gives concession to French explorer to the Suez canal and it was opened in 1869  the British were unhappy with it because it gave lots of control to the French so they pressured Egyptian leader, kept giving him loans, then they sent him the notice that he has to pay it back, when he couldn’t give money back he had to give his share of the Suez canal to the British  1882- the British formally turned Egypt into a protectorate, this lasted until 1953 despite the fact that in 1922 British gave independence to Egyptians  During WW1 Egyptian nationalists helped British with promise of having independence  WAFD sent this delegation to Paris to remind British of their promise, British sent them all into exile  The second period is period of Egyptian nationalism  There were riots when the delegation
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